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1 Excess of J/y yield at very low p T in Au+Au collisions at s NN = 200 GeV and U+U collisions at s NN = 193 GeV with STAR Wangmei Zha for the STAR Collaboration University of Science and Technology of China 1

2 J/y production modification in hadronic A+A collisions Hot medium effects: Color Screening - Smoking gun signature for QGP Regeneration -Recombination of charm quarks Cold Nuclear Matter effects: PDF modification in nucleus Initial state energy loss Cronin effect.. STAR Preliminary The interplay of these effects can explain the results from SPS to LHC! 2

3 Introduction to photon interactions in A+A Studied in detail for Ultra-Peripheral Collisions (UPC) UPC conditions: b > 2R A, no hadronic interactions = + Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci.55:271 (2005) V=r, w, f, J/y UPC A+A interaction Photon-photon interactions Photon-nucleus interactions This large flux of quasi-real photons makes a hadron collider also a photon collider! Photon-nucleus interactions: Coherent: emitted photon interacts with the entire target nucleus. Incoherent: emitted photon interacts with nucleon or parton individually. 3

4 Features of coherent photon-nucleus interaction Coherently: Both nuclei remain intact Photon/Pomeron wavelength l= h p > R A p T < h/r A ~30 MeV/c for heavy ions Strong couplings (Zα EM ~ 0.6) large cross sections Interference: Two indistinguishable processes (photon from A 1 or A 2 ) Vector meson opposite signs in amplitude Significant destructive interference for p T << 1/<b> w/o interference w/ interference y = 0 PRL (2000) 4

5 Excess of J/y production at very low p T with ALICE PRL116, (2016) Significant enhancement of J/y yield observed in p T interval GeV/c for peripheral collisions (50 90%). Can not be described by hadronic production modified by the hot medium or cold nuclear matter effects! Origin from coherent photonnucleus interactions? Measurement of J/y yield at very low p T in hadronic collisions (U+U and Au+Au): Enhancement of J/y yield at very low p T? If so, what are the properties and origin of the excess? p T,centrality and system size dependence of the excess; t distribution. 5

6 STAR detector Large acceptance: h < 1, 0 < f < 2π Time Projection Chamber (TPC) tracking, particle identification, momentum Time of Flight detector (TOF) particle identification Barrel ElectroMagnetic Calorimeter (BEMC) electron identification, triggering 6

7 Electron Identification 1/b distribution for electrons and hadrons from TOF Normalized de/dx (ns e ) distribution before and after TOF cuts p/e distribution for electrons and hadrons from BEMC Phys. Rev. C92 (2015)

8 J/y signal Centrality: 40 80% The signal is extracted by subtracting the mixed event background from the unlike-sign pairs. Good signal over background ratio! 8

9 J/y invariant yield in Au+Au and U+U Collisions 60 80% 40 60% 20 40% Function to describe hadronic production: d 2 N p T dp T = a Significant enhancement of J/y yield observed at p T interval GeV/c for peripheral collisions (40 80 %)! The yield of J/y at very low p T in Au+Au is similar to that in U+U within uncertainties. 1 (1 + b 2 p T 2 ) n 9

10 J/y yield at very low p T versus centrality 30 40% Low p T J/y from hadronic production is expected to increase dramatically with N part. No significant centrality dependence of the excess yield! No significant difference between Au+Au and U+U collisions. 10

11 J/y dn/dt distribution for Au+Au 40-80% Au+Au 200 GeV UPC r 0 Au+Au 200 GeV Phys. Rev. C (2008) ρ 0 cross-section as a function of the momentum transfer squared (t p 2 T ) from STAR UPC measurements. The slope from the exponential fit reflects the size and shape of target. Similar structure to that in UPC case! Indication of interference! Interference shape from calculation for UPC case PRL (2000) Similar slope parameter! Slope from STARLIGHT prediction in UPC case 196 (GeV/c) -2 Slope w/o the first point: 199 ± 31(GeV/c) -2 c 2 /NDF = 1.7/2 Slope w/ the first point: 164 ± 24(GeV/c) -2 c 2 /NDF = 5.9/3 11

12 J/y p+p baseline extraction from world-wide data z T = p T /<p T > Phys. Rev. C93, (2016) The scaled rapidity and p T distributions follow a universal trend. pp baseline at very low p T is interpolated from the worldwide experimental data. 12

13 J/y R AA for Au+Au and U+U collisions 60 80% 40 60% 20 40% R AA ~ 20 in 60 80% centrality at p T interval GeV/c R AA ~ 4 for 40 60% centrality at p T interval GeV/c 13

14 The calculation strategy for coherent production Utra-Peripheral Collisions Semi-Peripheral Collisions 14

15 Equivalent Photon Approximation E B v v E =0 c c v v v d 3 N γ dkd 2 r = 1 πk E k, r 2 = 4Z2 α QED k d 2 q F(q 2 + ( k (2π) 2 q γ )2 ) q 2 + ( k e iq r 2 γ )2 Point like: F q 2 = 1 d 3 N γ = Z2 α QED k K 2 dkd 2 r π 2 γ 2 1 ( kr ) γ 15

16 The calculation of nuclear form factor F( q ) r( r ) e iq r dr Two fermi distribution: No analytical results Au Red: Approximate Black: numeric calculation Approximate results: 16

17 Photon flux induced by Au Point-Like Realistic Collision system : Au+Au 200 GeV The same magnitude outside the nucleus. Big difference inside the nucleus! 17

18 Centrality definition by Glauber model Optical Glauber calculation: Au+Au geometry cross section: Glauber: mb Experiment: 6840 mb Centrality (%) b (fm) <b> (fm)

19 Determination of γ+a cross section = The parameters of γ+p cross section are determined from low energy fixed target photon beams and ep collisions at HERA. 19

20 Cross section at b = fm + 20

21 Comparison with data Describe the data very well at very peripheral collisions (60-80%)! Overestimate at semi-central collisions! Indication of spectator-spectator interactions? 21

22 Summary Significant excess of J/y yield at p T interval GeV/c is observed for peripheral collisions (40 80%). The excess trend shows no significant centrality dependence (30 80%) within uncertainties, which is beyond the expectation from hadronic production. The properties of the excess are consistent with the physical picture of coherent photon-nucleus interactions. Similar dn/dt distribution to that in UPC case. Indication of interference at p T interval GeV/c. The extracted nuclear form factor slope is consistent with nucleus size. Theoretical calculations describe the data of peripheral collisions (60 80%), while overestimate the cross section at semi-central collisions. Indication of spectator-spectator interactions 22

23 Discussion and outlook Challenges for theoretical calculations in hadronic peripheral collisions: How do the broken nucleus satisfy the condition of coherence? No significant dependence of production on impact parameter? The coherent cross section increases dramatically with decreasing impact parameter in the calculations. Cancellation of photon flux in the overlapping region of colliding nuclei for hadronic peripheral collisions. How large is incoherent contribution? Can the products of coherent photon-nucleus interactions serve as a probe to test the cold and hot medium effects? Future experimental measurements: More differential measurements for J/y. The excess of other vector meson (r, w, f,...) in hadronic collisions? The excess of photon-photon process (p 0,h, h, f 2 (1270), a 2 (1320), p + +p -, e + +e -, m + +m - )? 23

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