"Going with the flow - Computational Rheology" - PDF Free Download

"Going with the flow - Computational Rheology"

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download ""Going with the flow - Computational Rheology""

Transcription

1 LF Prifysgol Cymru Abertawe University Of Wales Swansea "Going with the flow - Computational Rheology" Inaugural Lecture of Professor Mike Webster Department of Computer Science ISBN O ll November, 2001 Taliesin Arts Theatre

2 UNIVERSITY OF WALES SWANSEA PRIFYSGOL CYMRU ABERT AWE LIBRARY I LLYFRGELL Classmark l?-\'2.t 1 ' S.:C..S'?_fj a \ Location ~ I 111 First published December 2001, by University of Wales Swansea CiJpies ohtainah/e fr om: The Department of Planning and Marketing University of Wales Swansea Singleton Park Swansea SA28PP Copyright - Professor Mike Webster All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in c1 retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electroni c, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the permission of thi:> copyright owner. E ISBN

3 "Going with the flow - Computational Rheology"!11a11g11ral Lecture!Darlith Agoriadol 12 Novemher 2001 Professor Mike Webster Department of Computer Science The title chosen for my lecture today, ' Going with the flow ', was coined first by the 1 Government sponsoring agency, Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Rheology is the science offlowi11g mater ial -. Con;p11tatio11al Rheology implies the S111l0' <?f Newto11ia11.f711id/low, via the use of comp11ters. The two pictures shown illu strat _e key issues that we shall addre ss: to the left, contrast of rheological properties and response of different fluids, here within splashing experiments ; to the right, comparison between simulation and experiment, as in contraction flows. We begin by setting the scene, with a sample of what you are about to see, relating to non-newtonian fluids. Jn fact, tliis is the trailer for our Institute of non- Newtonian Fluid Mechanics (INNFM) film on the subject - an educational and research tool available in video and CD format, work sponsored by EPSRC under Public Understanding and Awareness. Here, you see some clips for everyday fluids and standard experiments. The multi-media menu sections illustrate the aspects of science involved : Introduction, Viscometry, Rheometry, & non-newtonian effects ; each indi vidually selectable. By way of introduction, the area of science we pursue leads us to compute solutions (Computer Simulation) to the flows of complex non-newtonian materials. Domain s may be as complicated as required. By complex materials we are referring to their rheological behaviour. Under complicated domains, we mean space (3D)-time, often relating to industrial setting. Hence, we are concerned with pioneering the development of numerical algorithms to solve mathematical problems - themsel ves models, devised to represent flows in real-life situations (i.e. processing). Typically, such algorithms must translate systems of mixed-t ype, no_n-linear partial differential equations, into associated algebraic forms (discretisation), and perform their mechanical solution. This procedure is embodied in computer software (parallel

4 computation and visualisation), which is implemented on modern computer hardware. Here, we seek tractability for large-scale problems - implying efficiency in computation and speedy turn-round times. Today, results of our research shall be demonstrated through a series of well-chosen 'Case Studies'. This demands theory beyond that dealing with classical fluid dynamics and takes us from CFO to compuiational rheology. Hence, \Ve focus upon the complex material within the flow, rather than simpler fluids in complex flows (as in other areas of CFO) First, we need to provide some feel for everyday non-newtonian fluids, and through illustration, indicate depanure from Newtonian behaviour. An overview of case studies covers both those of a general nature (left) and those of direct industrial relevance (right). Many are clearly recognisable from their title. A selective san~ple (in bold) will illustrate the many facets of our work and its relevance to modern everyday-life. The geographical co~linearity of the groups within University of Wales fnnfm is striking, involving Bangor, Aberystwyth and Swansea. This multidisciplinary Institute (colleagues present in the audience) of mathematicians, _ engineers and computer scientists, has expanded over the past ten years. It has been recoonised as a Centre of Expertise (WDA), and draws down considerable external 0 funding ( 3 million, since 1998) from EU, UK government and industry. Over the last ;ea r or so, we have had two of om EPSRC research grant proposals, ranked first within the UK. In additio.n, we have been awarded three consecutive highly-prized " ROPA" awards, specifically targeted at the development of novel research ideas. From a personal perspective, I was attracted to Swansea in 1986 to form a new research team with Professor Peter Townsend (current Pro Vice-Chancellor & Registrar, Swansea). This meant a return to Wales, where I studied for a PhD in Applied Mathematics at Aberystwyth, a decade earlier, with Professor Ken Walters (FRS) and Professor Russell Davies. As one might gather from the views of Swansea and environs, this is a location of some considerable natural beauty, which is hard to beat and a place that is a pleasure to live and work in. Over the years, Swansea has had some considerable involvement within this research field, Professor Jim Oldroyd (Mathematics, UWS ) being a major figure in the 2 _Rheological community and Professor Olec Zienkiewic, (Engineering) in the Finite Element world. There is even some evidence of interaction between these two statesmen of the field. I gathered from private communication with Professor Zienkiewic2:, that Oldroyd provided the breakthrough to establishing finite element functions on triangles. This was the inathematical step required to generalise finite element topological reference - and shift consideraiion from basic brick-shaped (solid) building blocks to those useful in describing deforming matter (liquids). The seminal work of Oldroyd in his Royal Society of London paper ( 1950), set the scene for constitutive models and the guiding principles for their formulation, to describe material deformation in a generalised framework. This was a contentious issue at the time and somewhat misinterpreted by American colleagues The classical work in three volumes on finite element methods, of the same name, by Zienkiewicz & Taylor, now enters its fifth edition and remains an authoritative referen ce in the field By way of a fairly rough delineation, advances in numerical methods have seen the field shift from finite difference discretisation of the 60' s, to finite elements in the 70's, launching finite volume methods 's and spectral methods in the 90's. Such methodolog y was vital to solve the complex partial differential equations ofcfd. Other aspects involved are the choice of variables (streamfunction /vo rticity/stress or velocity/pressure /stress) and the level of equations adopted (steady/unsteady and decoupled/coupled). The tools of the trade, in computing engines through this period have changed beyond recognition. from the mainframes of the 70's, to individual workstations of the mid- 80's, to Supercomputers of the early 90's. Today, this has moved onto multi-proce ssor servers and distributed parallel processing with cluster machine s. Computer languages have also develop~d from Algol 60 and FORTRAN of the 's, to Pascal, C and FORTRAN90, and onto High Performance Computing (HPC) of today Procedural programming has also been challenged by alternative object-oriented, logic, and f~rnctional styles. The diversity is clearly apparent. The simulation software, we have developed, embodies algorithms with finite element and/or finite volume spatial discretisation, in combination with temporal discretisation, to form a stable and accurate time-stepping procedure. Parallel strategies, covering distributed and shared-memory platforms of homogeneous and heter9geneous type, 3

5 forge parallelism over many processors. By breaking the full equation system for incompressible flow down into fractional stages, large 3D transient problems are rendered traceable. This encompasses non-newton ian properties and non-isothermal effects. M.aterial propenies, incorporated within the modelling, include those for constant vi_scosity (Newtonian)_ fluids, shear-thinning, strain-hardening and softening fluids, and those that manifest memory effects (viscoelasticiry). These propenies have been illusirated earlier. In addition, fibre-additives may be accommodated. Flow geometries of all sorts may be considered, including: two-dimensional (1D ) planar, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional (JD) forms. Also, there are those associated with moving fronts or incerfaces (such as in injection moulding), and instances where free-surfaces arise (as within extrnsion, coating, printing and mixing). Typical finite element meshes in t,;,,o-and three-dimensi onal settings are illustrated. For the mathematically-minded, our modelling may be explained succinctly as follows. The differential equation system is composed of momentum transpo11 and mass balance equations, with an energy equation if non-isothermal, and a constitutive equation for stress. The variables involved are velocity 11, pressure, JI, and stress, D. Non-dimensional numbers of Reynolds and Wiessenberg number (Re and We) govern levels of ine11ia and elasticity, respectively. For the numerical analysts present, the principal fe/fv algorithmic framework is that grafted onrb a four-staged scheme over a single time-step Ot. An iterative loop is then performed to evolve forward in time. Discretisation is implied, over triangles in 1D and tetrahedra in JD, rendering the fully-discrete matrix-vector system shown - ready for algebraic solution. For viscous incompressible flow, a Taylor-Galerkin scheme (predictor-cone ctor stage I a,b) is combined with a pressure-correction scheme (stage 1-3, for incompressibility), that is second-order accurate and semi-implicit in time. Stress ( 0 ) is discretised, either in finite-element or volume form. Each approach has its individual merits. Continuous piecewise-quadratic interpolation is adopted for velocity (U) and linear for pressure (P). With the Fe-choice, stress interpolation follows velocity; weighting is of a streamline-type (supg) and superconvergent recovery is applied to velocity gradients. With the fv-form, stress is linearly interpolated on triangular sub-cells within each parent fe-cell. Fluctuation distribution and mediandual-cell constrncts are introduced via a cell-vertex approximation. Again, high-order accuracy is achieved. Returning to 'Ca se Studies', we begin in some detail with our work on mixing/separating flows, which allows us a backwards, historical glance. This problem is one that manifests both transient and viscoelastic effects. The schematic diagram i I lustrates the nature of the flow, inflow of the same fluid at two arms, top-right and bottom-left, outflow at the other two locations bottom-right and top-left. A gap in the flow splitter i_s apparent in the centre. We are able to reflect upon our results published in two Phil. Trans. Royal Society p_apers, 1980 and 8 1, demonstrating simulation and experimental observations for increasing flow rates and the significant differences in flow response for Newtonian liquids to some viscoelastic liquids. The gradua l appearance of vortices (flow rate increasing down the image) and reversed flow structure is apparent for Newto nian fluids, both via simulation (here) and experiments. These features are absent in the equivalent elastic situations. The simulations at that time were respectable, for Newtonian fluids at least. We view modern simulations for such a problem, via motion-blur animation sequences. This is a randomised space-filling visualisation technique, which provides a directional feel for the flowing liquids through animation. First, we look at the transient build-up of flow structure for a Newto nian fluid, commencing from a parallel, but opposing flow scenario. We ask the q11estio11, which way will the.flo w develop.? Colour is used to indicate strength of flow: red-for-fast, green-medium to blue-for-slow. Now as time advances on the counter, we observe reversed flow developing, and the build-up of a pair of vortices stai1ing at the walls, that merge gradually to a single central_ vortex. Finally, complete flow reversal dominates. Second, for a viscoelastic shear-thinning fluid, we commence from a reverse flow scenario and gradually increase the flow rate. At low flow rates, we observe the Newto nian-like response.... As flow rate increases on the indicator, we begin to see the clear preference for uni-directional viscoelastic flow emerging. At the largest flow rate, there is evidence of die-swell like phenomena, across the gap zone 4

6 departing rhe splitter. Notably, the elastic situation, elusive some twenty years earlier, is now amenable to modern science. Next, we shift attention to an industrial problem, that of wire-coating, for wires, cables and glass-rovings. Here, pressure monitoring is impo11ant to avoid blow-out, and viscoelastici1y affects the residual stressing imparted to the coating. Minimal residual" stressing is desirable within the c~oled working product. This work has been supported by rwo separate companies over the last ten years, signifying a qua11er of a million pounds industrial investment. Here, we seek to understand the firndamenrals of the flow process when polymer melts are extruded and drawn onto a fast-moving wire (travelling around I rn/s), to form a coated product for everyday use - i.e. electrical cables. The industrialist would seek to optimise process settings to maintain product quality, maximise output and minimise product wastage. The schema illustrates the polymer coating material, the die geometry and the cable. Three animation sequences are provided. The first sequence, gives an overview of the industrial extrusion, wire-coating line. The manufacturing line itself may be 200m- 300m long. The various components are built-up incrementally, using colour, shadinglighting and movement of parts. The screw extruder, that delivers the molten polymer, is exposed via 3D solid-modelling and sophisticated visualisation techniques. Graphical manipulation allows one to inspect inside the extruder. The second sequence, takes up the next phase and focuses on the wire-coating. We illustrates the wire, the individual distributor and die sections,..., and the flow of polymer through rhe geometry onto the cable. Rotation of the viewing angle provides an appreciation of the flow. _ Finally, we zoom into the region identified for simulation. In the third sequence, our numerical predictions are presented for this problem. We begin with the effect of die geometry adjustment. Optimal die positioning avoids unwanted recirculation and pressure blow-out within the die. Note, the rise in pressure, on the scale, as the distributor-tip gets foo close to the die-housing. Retraction, too far, reintroduces backtlow. At a fixed die posi lio11, a switch of rheology in the flowing material, from Newto nian to shear-thinning, has the effect of sweeping away the reverse flow (dead zones," where material would degrade). Most severity in the flow occurs at the end of the die, just before the polymer is extruded onto the cable. Stressing in rhe coating may be picked out, per design, and minimised. A clearer understanding of these effects has lead to recommendations re optimality of_process design for various polymer melt blends. This has lead to improved production and considerable savings through reduction in product wastage. Some static i111ages on field data for pressure, shear-rate and extension-rate. illustrate the distribution of these quantities throughout the flow. Levels of shearing and extension are quadrupled for pressure- above tube-tooling designs. A second industrial exa111ple is that of reverse roller-coating, an investigation into surface instabilities and operating coaditions. This work has been sponsored by a local industrial co111pany, Alcoa. Here, the underside of aluminium alloy sheets is coated with a protective layer of solvent-based lacquer (zooined view). Typically, the coated foil would be used to punch out tin-lids. Processing instabilities (chatter and starvation) generate unevenness in surface finish that is aesthetically unacceptable to the consumer-market. The consequent economic loss due to wastage is considerable. Hence the motivation for the present study: to predict how, when and why such effects arise and to suggest a possible remedy. Printing processes throw up si111ilar scenarios, where product quality and increased throughput are the desired goal. At this point, we enter a multi-media view of the problem, available over the www. This exposes the high aspect-ratios involved and interrelates the data gathered in a meaningful manner. The alloy foil travels over a ta111bouroll, and then a series of rollers, that deliver and apply the lacquer to the foil-underside. Foil speed is around 200m/111in and the applicator roll-speed is 90% of this. The lacquer coating, without polymer additives, is characterised as a Newto nian fluid. Encapsulating the principal features, a narrow section of the process is analysed: lying from the applicator-roll take-up flow, to the flow between roller and foil, to the surface-coating on the foil. The nip-gap (between roller and foil) and the free-surface meniscus are particularly important. A parameter sensitivity analysis covers the operating window of applied conditions. We first concentrate on steady flow, with no leakage at the nip. We consider variation in foil-speed at fixed roller-speed. We then invert this test, varying roller-speed at fixed foil-speed. In this fashion, we are able to relate flow and deformation fields to quantities of interest, such as forces upon the foil (Ii~) and roller (drag). At standard 6 7

7 settings, colour density stream fi.inction plots indicate the long thin nature of the now,.., that travels from roller, to nip and back to the foil-coating. Pressures and shearrates are high at the nip. Lift and pressure, localised to the nip (on the right of the graphs), turn out to be important factors in the process. Upon increasing foil-speed, we observe in motion-blur representation (for the meniscus zone), that this draws the f1ow recirculation closer to the foil and twists the f1ow lines towards the meniscus. /11terauive i111e1pretatio11 (through graphs) of corresponding lift and drag, demonstrate the linear i11crease in fiirce.1 with increasing foil-speed. This is also true of the maxima in shear-rate and pressure at the nip. In contrast, increasing the relative speed of the roller 10 the foil has the reverse effect. Now, the f1ow is drawn closer to the roller as its speed increases, and the forces rejlect a linear decrease. Here, nip shear-rate maxima switch from foil to roller, as roll-speed dominates. Switching to a temporal analysis, we activate leakage at the nip to act as a flow relief mechanism. The gap at the nip may be widened, by shifting the foil vertically, instigated in a periodic manner. Two aspects have been addressed: the extent of the nip-width widening and the frequency of periodic adjustment (high or low). The extent of the gap-width is found to be a crucial factor in the process. By shifting the whole foil (global) vertically, from I% to 2% width of coating-flow,. nip-pressures fluctuate in time (graphs, p v time) and temporal swface imtabililies are detected (sho_wn at the top of the screen-shot, against the time-bar) These effects correspond simultaneously with changes in lift. By focusing on lift, per unit length of foil, one observes that maximum lift remains localised to the nip-region, during leakage/no-leakage states. The same is true, but is even more exaggerated, if only a local ponion of the foillength is shifted. The more local the shift, the more the lift is amplified; shown at 30%, J 0% and 4% of foil-length shift Notice the rise in lift to the right of the graphs approaching the nip. This is, in fact,'what one might expect in practice. The hean of the problem lies here. We speculate that control of the extent of foil-movement, through appropriate synchronisation mechanisms, will effectively control the surface instabilities. To add some variety we now swi_tch attention to a rich and varied foods study: that of dough kneading, with applications to bread and biscuit making. The MMS trailer quickly scans what was involved. Five companies (RHNI, UB, Pillsbury, Mono 8 Equipment and SASIB Bakeries) provided industrial trial data and the interdisciplinary research cross-referenced Institute experiments at Aberystwyth with modelling/visualisation at Swansea - a flagship project for the Institute (value 0.75 million, our first BBSRC grant). We were required lo: analyse the stirring of dough; gather information on mixer design choice; relate this against dough rheology; predict how to maximise stretching work input to the dough and enhance the build-up of material strncture (i.e. kneading). A grand-challenge indeed I This is a key aspect to the overall manufacturing procedure. The work involved : folly-filled and part-filled mixing; steady and unsteady situations; two- and three-dimensional analyses; freesurface movement of the dough; different materials, mixers and configurations.. Jn the fimr images, we illustrate an empty mixer, two different states of kneading. ' ( mixer-lid removed), and a typical final baked product._ Commonly, bread mixers are n.111 vertically, biscuit-mixers horizontally. The associated complex free-surface movement involves wetting and peeling on vessel and stirrers - this has demanded new. modelling algorithms. Perspective static views of flow patterns are illustrated for a filled one-stirrer mixer with anti-clockwise vessel rotation, shown half-way up the mixer at 50 rpm (a standard speed and model inelastic fluid) Asymmetrical structure is apparent with an off-centre vortex: pressure, shear-rate and rate-of-work extrema are localised to the stirrer. Each menu icon is, in fact, a programmed network (a graph) of the presentation (covering variation in speed, height, material and 1 otation-type). We contrast this case against the two-stirrer instance : some symmetry is observed about the stirrers and a central figure-of-eight vortex emerges. In three dimensions, we are. able to appreciate the depthwise-distribution in rates of shear, extension and work against stirrers and lid. Animated views, passing through increased speeds, allows the direct cross-reference of simulated data, in pressure, extension-rate and motion-blur fields, against experimental f1ow visualisation (bottom-left, stirrers indicated). The correspondence in vortex structure is striking. Motion-blur clips at four set speeds of vessel rotation, identify the twisting of the vortex structure with increased speed (in the direction of rotation). This is corroborated in high-speed camera, laser-scatter stills of I% cmc fluid At 50 rpm, the motion-blur flow patterns between one- and two-stirr er mixer s may be contrasted (on the left), whilst also taking the industrialist 's view with stirrers rotali11g (on the 9

8 right). Next, we turn to the vertical pan-filled instance (for bread-making), with a central-stirrer, vessel rotating and wmpare the final rise surface position graphically against experiment. Agreement is encouraging. Similarly, we may combine cases with three set speeds, 25, 50 and 100 rpm, to demonstrate variation of fluid height-rise at the outer vessel. Such results are obtained by modelling the peeling-off and wettingonto the surfaces, via the adjustment of surface-fluid line segments, according to their stretch and angk from the solid boundary. Relief of limiting stretch, also relieves critical boundary stress levels. A more complicated vertical scenario is that with a single eccentric stirrer (vessel-rotating). A surface triangulation (heavy on graphics) illustrates the complex shapes encountered. Different viewing angles, with lighting and shading, indicate the surface rise ahead of and dip behind the stirrer. Experimental camera-stills ~t four diff~rent speeds, validate our predictions. There is increased contonion of the surface as speed gathers. The experimental build-up of surface sm1cture is animated from a rest state at 250 rpm vessel-speed. ln contrast, horizontal mixing (used for biscuit-making), may be viewed from one end at four different times. Here, we detect wetting/peeling at the outer vessel and peeling from the stirrer as time progresses. First, we view the simulation through an animation clip. The welting/peeling at the outer vessel is a dominant feature. This may be contrasted against the corresponding experiment for a syrup at 50 rprn. The surface attachment structure around the inner section of the stirrer and the central flat. surface shape are finer detail to c~pture. Even these particular details may be predicted, by carefi.d localised adjustment of control parameters for the inner and outer stirrer sections (left image, constant factor; right image, dynamic setting). Lastly, we move to viscoelastic materials, dough-like and filled scenarios. We may observe the stretching and shear stresses across the mixer for a single-stirrer design, or one with a double-stirrer. Ma~ima in stress are localised about the stirrer, in the narrow-gap between stirrer and vessel; the hoop stress dominates. Tabulations of localised work-input for the double-stirrer case, reveal that elastic work (stretching, shown in red) is dominated by viscous work (shown in blue). Here, shear influences pievail in the totalled work-input In contrast, the asymmetric single-stirrer design provides ten-times the elastic to viscous work : this is amplified for fluids with some strain-hardening (as occurs with dough). So we arrive atthe punch-line : optimal 10 kneading for dough is achieved with more asymmetrical mixer designs - one stirrer better than two (shades of Orwell). More complex stirrer shapes are usual ln this respect, we observe for realistic dough that flat-bottomed, half-stirrer shapes, produce the best results. Note, the Multi-media presentation style of the fi.iture, with personalised, cruise control-navigation, the green panic-button I. We finish. with a look lo the fi.1ture, and where we are intending to take this technology. A principal plank is our pursuit of quantitative agreement between the modelling and actual fluid flows (experiments). In this respect, we look to such flows as in the contraction, seeking multi-mode and variety of model fits under realistic flow conditions. Here, new challenges are posed to the comparative visualisations sought. Industrial flows abound. Analysis of processing takes us into foods-related studies, for example tilanient stretching, as arises in deposition of food products (such as yoghwi). Printing and coating of inks is another domain where rheological input is required with the current interest in polymer additives. This brings us naturally to the link between micro- and nano-scale studies, looking at stretching of liquid bridges between surfaces within the realm ofbiomechanics. A further area of multi-disciplinary interest lies in consideration of compressibility for viscoelastic flows, of relevance within injection moulding. Here, Swansea has a wealth of background knowledge. ll is implied that suitable algorithms will be developed to meet the challenges posed by and the individual character of each problem in hand. I close with thanks. Note, the advanced warning of a second INNFM film (interactive /CD version - top right) on the 'History of Rheology' - the life and limes of our field. This was constructed with the help of two Olchfa students, Gareth Hunt and David Webster. It shall appear shortly. I am indebted to my research colleagues.and students within the team at Swansea and the Institute at large, for their invaluable suppmi and contributions to this body of work. We finish by playing out on a trailer for our new film. your attention. M.ike Webster 12 November 200 I 11 I thank you once again for

9 Appendix of slide-images attached. Appendix I. General slides Appendix [I : Reverse-Roller Coating Multi-media Appendix Ill Dough-Mixing Multi-media Appendix I: General Slides 12

10 Appendix I: General slides ;ln~ ~f -- f.. --: ~1 PTof: Mike W b t r Computer Soh:nc, UWS.. Goinc with tb 06W" Compotatlonal Rheolo17 Introduct1o n What we do Science Application Case Studle.s l l Simulation Soltwetc Finite Element/Volume method Time Intecr Uon &. parallelbatioo Viscous hu:ompressiblc Oow Non -Newtonian Noa.-Isothe.-mal \ a.r!..w:!!1 j''..,... "~ i-tt fd:i Newtoala" ildat a rlal f;, :,.~.f " Locatioo Flow Geometries Governlnl Eq11.atloo.a 2D planar I Conservation al Mass 'v 11 '"" 0 Swan e mmctric --AJCl-ay - Movln1 fronts I Free lliurfaces Interfaces, ,... 1.lflfl!J MomentumTransporl I' Rc~=-Kc: u V t-9 (21;-dt- f) j Stress Cansliluli ve Law ar µ IVe"a;" = -\Veu Vr- fr +2~d + We(L r + r i7 ) Re: plll We=~,ta ' L...,... Of.J,Q. o...,..... tic History Sw1uu,ea Hlstory ln the Hel4 h -O.C. %lcnlll lc r...~.. 1"",,(.)\ I I Nuau:riclll AJ1orithm Taylor Gali;,,ikin/ p c achcm Staijc la l¼m+ts. j(u 00 ~ - u,.., 1-1s. u + RcN(U)UI+ 1.Tr1 C llaheedy Studiea vieca l e etlc Rhoolop -,_ 1...;,;..-:,"; ~ - "F=.-.. ~~~~!lt..n m.,lcal Me:bod, ',. S1:1~c: l r~ : ~ Page <#> Page<#>

11 I Mixing/Separating Flow I C u: Studies Doue;b Ml.xlnc wottla1 Iii. p lloc be - fully RIied a. parc -lulad tnnaleat 'ld&jd. coaccatrlc & a cc ntrlc.cln"n 11lffer 1:1t 1natt1rlala a. 1co,actrlea.ppt 1lldes C se Studies CJosinc Remarks Futu,a Wlre Coating r -Q.. aalltallve co,.. p111lao11 Shoulall.,11., Jrp rl111 10ta Co., cuua Oo oiuiltl-,. 4 Ouida, pu,.. u,e calet1latlon Important a l a tlclty Important 111 th d l n!.rr.t.-:;-t ~~ ,- '.\t!..!.!.!.1l F ~.~ rvlaw _.. "'"'"'... odala,tn...,,a.. too la1h1atrlal Row -f' Uama t o:blil IL>adel - N...,.... lc.ro- o:!wce - Pria... c..,.u... -lacaal'... o:,.. r.,ulbl Flllr OptkCahr, A.dvaoc.s alcorlthm ta ~It Se,il:!11d1>ttl1ol"1t11091,. tlrl11,~6dt.9ve,vlu, S,oql: N...,tonltn dl -v-111&/m...,oftlmlol nelull l"/uif-1 Noft-NIWIG!' l n /lwds!l!i. Ca e Studies Rever e, Roller-co tln1 fr urracelnat l,llltl1n..,,umal open.tins eondltlon _...,. +- Reverse Roller Conling Multimedia Section r - 1, I Thank you you,.~::atloa 1- Aoknowl m n<,, CFDt.. m INNFM ~ Page <#> Page<#>

12 Appendix II: Reverse-Roller Coating Multi-media

13 Appendix II: Reverse-Roller Coating Multi-media 404.IE...1) l'f~uf (...:;, --' (~!\~~ II.,,..:,, 1..,,.,; 2'% ~:\)}.~..:V:.!, '!t~;i/j;/(.,,,-~...,

14 Appendix III: ~1 :;~::"~ jl ;_~_-. ::7 -,.. t.. " ' i :. ~,...,_,.... jr...,, Dough-mixing Multi-media 2

15 Appendix Ill: Dough-Mixing Multi-media 11\fO.Jt I~,t,e"" ' ~.. ~lll!!j=""".....,...~--- 11o -,.., ~-.. :.., ' l"'10 10<WIW>ll:n.; ~... 1:1<1u:11u.t,,il., MB P 1.,. t1..,/ ' _;... A-2 Re - _ Peetlng criteria onaet. & adjustment._.:r:-. :.', ,.- <.,, ,{' :.. l;"" ::S u)u l,'.. 1.s a,t ~ j.., inl.:l c~ h.:l<i" " ici lc, ct Ml! ~lll!!j=.""'1 iffl PJ,ticlUlllU \ v ll \/41,o,,1>o1.uu,...:» 2

16 n..,,n11 {I 1::,,... r, :~ rr..-,. 011\1t:;J1 l:'h,)1":f.i : k' tt'ltl :,g..-ca toictn,... ti.-1aew H,-.. w...c- ErIT(O 15i \ii;.:;,;;: lrl IPI 19 \ lltj\'"ji Mt.:tlN1; le -~ c~- "1111J1~1-:t '1- i fjtli11 r;_j.. j....'''.. ~h,:ar-rnr~ u.:i t,io:nl mle-,l:'-\1",1:i,;,r.u:i,na: 1 ).,11,1.:1 : P.c--l'.:,E-- 0.1'.:5,E-2:i' mm,.,, _ a. --:;----- ~ tl,lf ',f1. 1;,f1N4l ; t2rr111 mm _,, t~i n 1.r.u : r1 :]~i "'.:..:,.:~,....'.?~ :~ W"tmff :~, m111 11s11;,r. ~ ":~ / :1mra l't1tt1,~.,.,,r.,., ;r, ;]WI. mrr~ 1111 ffl Jffiff i:t., 11 Sl1t;1r " ;11e;in:llr.:.1lr.1tt.-nl wr,rl;-111n:im1, i\i: ll, ~-O.l:'.!.'i, l?-1.'i f 11fCI'. 3 4

17

Express Introductory Training in ANSYS Fluent Lecture 1 Introduction to the CFD Methodology

Express Introductory Training in ANSYS Fluent Lecture 1 Introduction to the CFD Methodology Express Introductory Training in ANSYS Fluent Lecture 1 Introduction to the CFD Methodology Dimitrios Sofialidis Technical Manager, SimTec Ltd. Mechanical Engineer, PhD PRACE Autumn School 2013 - Industry

More information

1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids

1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids 1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties What is fluid mechanics? As its name suggests it is the branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of fluids - both liquids and gases.

More information

CFD Application on Food Industry; Energy Saving on the Bread Oven

CFD Application on Food Industry; Energy Saving on the Bread Oven Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 13 (8): 1095-1100, 2013 ISSN 1990-9233 IDOSI Publications, 2013 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.13.8.548 CFD Application on Food Industry; Energy Saving on the

More information

Lecture 16 - Free Surface Flows. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

Lecture 16 - Free Surface Flows. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Lecture 16 - Free Surface Flows Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (2002-2006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Example: spinning bowl Example: flow in

More information

Multiphase Flow - Appendices

Multiphase Flow - Appendices Discovery Laboratory Multiphase Flow - Appendices 1. Creating a Mesh 1.1. What is a geometry? The geometry used in a CFD simulation defines the problem domain and boundaries; it is the area (2D) or volume

More information

COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS

COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 30 52, Article ID: IJARET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?jtype=ijaret&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

. Address the following issues in your solution:

. Address the following issues in your solution: CM 3110 COMSOL INSTRUCTIONS Faith Morrison and Maria Tafur Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI USA 22 November 2012 Zhichao Wang edits 21 November 2013 revised

More information

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES Vol. XX 2012 No. 4 28 34 J. ŠIMIČEK O. HUBOVÁ NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES Jozef ŠIMIČEK email: jozef.simicek@stuba.sk Research field: Statics and Dynamics Fluids mechanics

More information

Bachelor of Games and Virtual Worlds (Programming) Subject and Course Summaries

Bachelor of Games and Virtual Worlds (Programming) Subject and Course Summaries First Semester Development 1A On completion of this subject students will be able to apply basic programming and problem solving skills in a 3 rd generation object-oriented programming language (such as

More information

Customer Training Material. Lecture 2. Introduction to. Methodology ANSYS FLUENT. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Customer Training Material. Lecture 2. Introduction to. Methodology ANSYS FLUENT. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Lecture 2 Introduction to CFD Methodology Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT L2-1 What is CFD? Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions,

More information

HEAVY OIL FLOW MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES

HEAVY OIL FLOW MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES HEAVY OIL FLOW MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES 1 INTRODUCTION The vast majority of the world s remaining oil reserves are categorised as heavy / unconventional oils (high viscosity). Due to diminishing conventional

More information

Mesh Moving Techniques for Fluid-Structure Interactions With Large Displacements

Mesh Moving Techniques for Fluid-Structure Interactions With Large Displacements K. Stein Department of Physics, Bethel College, St. Paul, MN 55112 T. Tezduyar Mechanical Engineering, Rice University, MS 321, Houston, TX 77005 R. Benney Natick Soldier Center, Natick, MA 01760 Mesh

More information

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline 1 Why is rheology important? Examples of its importance Summary of important variables Description of the flow equations Flow regimes - laminar vs. turbulent - Reynolds number - definition of viscosity

More information

ME6130 An introduction to CFD 1-1

ME6130 An introduction to CFD 1-1 ME6130 An introduction to CFD 1-1 What is CFD? Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving numerically

More information

Copyright 2011 Casa Software Ltd. www.casaxps.com. Centre of Mass

Copyright 2011 Casa Software Ltd. www.casaxps.com. Centre of Mass Centre of Mass A central theme in mathematical modelling is that of reducing complex problems to simpler, and hopefully, equivalent problems for which mathematical analysis is possible. The concept of

More information

Introduction to COMSOL. The Navier-Stokes Equations

Introduction to COMSOL. The Navier-Stokes Equations Flow Between Parallel Plates Modified from the COMSOL ChE Library module rev 10/13/08 Modified by Robert P. Hesketh, Chemical Engineering, Rowan University Fall 2008 Introduction to COMSOL The following

More information

Customer Training Material. Lecture 4. Meshing in Mechanical. Mechanical. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Customer Training Material. Lecture 4. Meshing in Mechanical. Mechanical. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Lecture 4 Meshing in Mechanical Introduction to ANSYS Mechanical L4-1 Chapter Overview In this chapter controlling meshing operations is described. Topics: A. Global Meshing Controls B. Local Meshing Controls

More information

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering

More information

AB3080 L. Learning Objectives: About the Speaker:

AB3080 L. Learning Objectives: About the Speaker: AB3080 L While architects have tested their designs in wind tunnels for many years, the process is typically outsourced to engineering firms and not easily accessible to architects during the conceptual

More information

P. Lu, Sh. Huang and K. Jiang

P. Lu, Sh. Huang and K. Jiang 416 Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 33 (2013) 416-422 P. Lu, Sh. Huang and K. Jiang NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL BULK METAL FORMING PROCESSES WITH ARBITRARILY SHAPED DIES USING THE RIGID/VISCO-PLASTIC

More information

A Strategy for Teaching Finite Element Analysis to Undergraduate Students

A Strategy for Teaching Finite Element Analysis to Undergraduate Students A Strategy for Teaching Finite Element Analysis to Undergraduate Students Gordon Smyrell, School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Teesside The analytical power and design flexibility offered

More information

Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SolidWorks 2012 SolidWorks Simulation Tutorial Page 1

Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SolidWorks 2012 SolidWorks Simulation Tutorial Page 1 Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SolidWorks 2012 SolidWorks Simulation Tutorial Page 1 In this tutorial, we will use the SolidWorks Simulation finite element analysis (FEA) program to analyze the response

More information

Dimensional analysis is a method for reducing the number and complexity of experimental variables that affect a given physical phenomena.

Dimensional analysis is a method for reducing the number and complexity of experimental variables that affect a given physical phenomena. Dimensional Analysis and Similarity Dimensional analysis is very useful for planning, presentation, and interpretation of experimental data. As discussed previously, most practical fluid mechanics problems

More information

In mathematics, there are four attainment targets: using and applying mathematics; number and algebra; shape, space and measures, and handling data.

In mathematics, there are four attainment targets: using and applying mathematics; number and algebra; shape, space and measures, and handling data. MATHEMATICS: THE LEVEL DESCRIPTIONS In mathematics, there are four attainment targets: using and applying mathematics; number and algebra; shape, space and measures, and handling data. Attainment target

More information

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation.

More information

Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations

Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations Hemi Nae, PhD Hydan Technologies, Inc. Key Words Complex Modulus, Creep/Recovery, Dilatant Flow, Dynamic Viscosity, Flow, Flow Curve, Flow Models, Frequency

More information

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

More information

Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque

Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque Every time we push a door open or tighten a bolt using a wrench, we apply a force that results in a rotational motion about a fixed axis. Through experience we learn

More information

Atomic Force Microscope and Magnetic Force Microscope Background Information

Atomic Force Microscope and Magnetic Force Microscope Background Information Atomic Force Microscope and Magnetic Force Microscope Background Information Lego Building Instructions There are several places to find the building instructions for building the Lego models of atomic

More information

A Guide to Thermoform Processing of Polypropylene. Introduction

A Guide to Thermoform Processing of Polypropylene. Introduction A Guide to Thermoform Processing of Polypropylene Introduction Thermoforming is the process of heating plastic sheet to a pliable state and forming it into shape. Thermoforming offers processing advantages

More information

Introduction to CFD Analysis

Introduction to CFD Analysis Introduction to CFD Analysis Introductory FLUENT Training 2006 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2006 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-2 What is CFD? Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science

More information

COMP175: Computer Graphics. Lecture 1 Introduction and Display Technologies

COMP175: Computer Graphics. Lecture 1 Introduction and Display Technologies COMP175: Computer Graphics Lecture 1 Introduction and Display Technologies Course mechanics Number: COMP 175-01, Fall 2009 Meetings: TR 1:30-2:45pm Instructor: Sara Su (sarasu@cs.tufts.edu) TA: Matt Menke

More information

Unit 6: EXTRUSION. Difficult to form metals like stainless steels, nickel based alloys and high temperature metals can also be extruded.

Unit 6: EXTRUSION. Difficult to form metals like stainless steels, nickel based alloys and high temperature metals can also be extruded. 1 Unit 6: EXTRUSION Introduction: Extrusion is a metal working process in which cross section of metal is reduced by forcing the metal through a die orifice under high pressure. It is used to produce cylindrical

More information

Dr. Paul Gramann The Madison Group Madison, WI 53719

Dr. Paul Gramann The Madison Group Madison, WI 53719 New Dispersive and Distributive Mixers for Extrusion and Injection Molding Dr. Paul Gramann The Madison Group Madison, WI 53719 Dr. Chris Rauwendaal Rauwendaal Extrusion Engineering, Inc. Los Altos Hills,

More information

ALGEBRA. sequence, term, nth term, consecutive, rule, relationship, generate, predict, continue increase, decrease finite, infinite

ALGEBRA. sequence, term, nth term, consecutive, rule, relationship, generate, predict, continue increase, decrease finite, infinite ALGEBRA Pupils should be taught to: Generate and describe sequences As outcomes, Year 7 pupils should, for example: Use, read and write, spelling correctly: sequence, term, nth term, consecutive, rule,

More information

Simple CFD Simulations and Visualisation using OpenFOAM and ParaView. Sachiko Arvelius, PhD

Simple CFD Simulations and Visualisation using OpenFOAM and ParaView. Sachiko Arvelius, PhD Simple CFD Simulations and Visualisation using OpenFOAM and ParaView Sachiko Arvelius, PhD Purpose of this presentation To show my competence in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and visualisation

More information

Effect of Aspect Ratio on Laminar Natural Convection in Partially Heated Enclosure

Effect of Aspect Ratio on Laminar Natural Convection in Partially Heated Enclosure Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering (1): 8-33, 014 DOI: 10.13189/ujme.014.00104 http://www.hrpub.org Effect of Aspect Ratio on Laminar Natural Convection in Partially Heated Enclosure Alireza Falahat

More information

Feature Commercial codes In-house codes

Feature Commercial codes In-house codes A simple finite element solver for thermo-mechanical problems Keywords: Scilab, Open source software, thermo-elasticity Introduction In this paper we would like to show how it is possible to develop a

More information

du u U 0 U dy y b 0 b

du u U 0 U dy y b 0 b BASIC CONCEPTS/DEFINITIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (by Marios M. Fyrillas) 1. Density (πυκνότητα) Symbol: 3 Units of measure: kg / m Equation: m ( m mass, V volume) V. Pressure (πίεση) Alternative definition:

More information

Teaching Methodology for 3D Animation

Teaching Methodology for 3D Animation Abstract The field of 3d animation has addressed design processes and work practices in the design disciplines for in recent years. There are good reasons for considering the development of systematic

More information

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Natti S. Rao Nick R. Schott Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Hands-on Examples and Case Studies Sample Pages from Chapters 4 and 6 ISBNs 978--56990-509-8-56990-509-6 HANSER Hanser Publishers,

More information

Laminar Flow in a Baffled Stirred Mixer

Laminar Flow in a Baffled Stirred Mixer Laminar Flow in a Baffled Stirred Mixer Introduction This exercise exemplifies the use of the rotating machinery feature in the CFD Module. The Rotating Machinery interface allows you to model moving rotating

More information

Intro to 3D Animation Using Blender

Intro to 3D Animation Using Blender Intro to 3D Animation Using Blender Class Instructor: Anthony Weathersby Class Objectives A primer in the areas of 3D modeling and materials An introduction to Blender and Blender s toolset Course Introduction

More information

Numeracy and mathematics Experiences and outcomes

Numeracy and mathematics Experiences and outcomes Numeracy and mathematics Experiences and outcomes My learning in mathematics enables me to: develop a secure understanding of the concepts, principles and processes of mathematics and apply these in different

More information

An Overview of the Finite Element Analysis

An Overview of the Finite Element Analysis CHAPTER 1 An Overview of the Finite Element Analysis 1.1 Introduction Finite element analysis (FEA) involves solution of engineering problems using computers. Engineering structures that have complex geometry

More information

Contents. 4 I/O Drivers: Connecting To External Technologies. 5 System Requirements. 6 Run Mode And Edit Mode. 7 Controls

Contents. 4 I/O Drivers: Connecting To External Technologies. 5 System Requirements. 6 Run Mode And Edit Mode. 7 Controls User Guide November 19, 2014 Contents 3 Welcome 3 What Is FACTORY I/O 3 How Does It Work 4 I/O Drivers: Connecting To External Technologies 5 System Requirements 6 Run Mode And Edit Mode 7 Controls 8 Cameras

More information

Computer Animation and Visualisation. Lecture 1. Introduction

Computer Animation and Visualisation. Lecture 1. Introduction Computer Animation and Visualisation Lecture 1 Introduction 1 Today s topics Overview of the lecture Introduction to Computer Animation Introduction to Visualisation 2 Introduction (PhD in Tokyo, 2000,

More information

3D Interactive Information Visualization: Guidelines from experience and analysis of applications

3D Interactive Information Visualization: Guidelines from experience and analysis of applications 3D Interactive Information Visualization: Guidelines from experience and analysis of applications Richard Brath Visible Decisions Inc., 200 Front St. W. #2203, Toronto, Canada, rbrath@vdi.com 1. EXPERT

More information

GeoGebra. 10 lessons. Gerrit Stols

GeoGebra. 10 lessons. Gerrit Stols GeoGebra in 10 lessons Gerrit Stols Acknowledgements GeoGebra is dynamic mathematics open source (free) software for learning and teaching mathematics in schools. It was developed by Markus Hohenwarter

More information

Finite Element Method (ENGC 6321) Syllabus. Second Semester 2013-2014

Finite Element Method (ENGC 6321) Syllabus. Second Semester 2013-2014 Finite Element Method Finite Element Method (ENGC 6321) Syllabus Second Semester 2013-2014 Objectives Understand the basic theory of the FEM Know the behaviour and usage of each type of elements covered

More information

CFD MODELLING OF TOP SUBMERGED LANCE GAS INJECTION

CFD MODELLING OF TOP SUBMERGED LANCE GAS INJECTION CFD MODELLING OF TOP SUBMERGED LANCE GAS INJECTION Nazmul Huda PhD Student Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science Swinburne University of Technology Melbourne, Australia Supervised by Dr. Jamal

More information

Interactive simulation of an ash cloud of the volcano Grímsvötn

Interactive simulation of an ash cloud of the volcano Grímsvötn Interactive simulation of an ash cloud of the volcano Grímsvötn 1 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND Simulating flows in the atmosphere, being part of CFD, is on of the research areas considered in the working group

More information

Fric-3. force F k and the equation (4.2) may be used. The sense of F k is opposite

Fric-3. force F k and the equation (4.2) may be used. The sense of F k is opposite 4. FRICTION 4.1 Laws of friction. We know from experience that when two bodies tend to slide on each other a resisting force appears at their surface of contact which opposes their relative motion. The

More information

Finite Element Formulation for Plates - Handout 3 -

Finite Element Formulation for Plates - Handout 3 - Finite Element Formulation for Plates - Handout 3 - Dr Fehmi Cirak (fc286@) Completed Version Definitions A plate is a three dimensional solid body with one of the plate dimensions much smaller than the

More information

Visualization methods for patent data

Visualization methods for patent data Visualization methods for patent data Treparel 2013 Dr. Anton Heijs (CTO & Founder) Delft, The Netherlands Introduction Treparel can provide advanced visualizations for patent data. This document describes

More information

Creating Your Own 3D Models

Creating Your Own 3D Models 14 Creating Your Own 3D Models DAZ 3D has an extensive growing library of 3D models, but there are times that you may not find what you want or you may just want to create your own model. In either case

More information

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Rakesh Sidharthan 1 Gnanavel B K 2 Assistant professor Mechanical, Department Professor, Mechanical Department, Gojan engineering college,

More information

Prentice Hall Mathematics: Course 1 2008 Correlated to: Arizona Academic Standards for Mathematics (Grades 6)

Prentice Hall Mathematics: Course 1 2008 Correlated to: Arizona Academic Standards for Mathematics (Grades 6) PO 1. Express fractions as ratios, comparing two whole numbers (e.g., ¾ is equivalent to 3:4 and 3 to 4). Strand 1: Number Sense and Operations Every student should understand and use all concepts and

More information

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi 2 Rajesh Dudi 1 Scholar and 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, OITM, Hisar (Haryana)

More information

ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SPRING BACK EFFECTS IN A TYPICAL COLD ROLLED SHEET

ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SPRING BACK EFFECTS IN A TYPICAL COLD ROLLED SHEET International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 119-130, Article ID: IJMET_07_01_013 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth

Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth Bulk deformation forming (rolling) Rolling is the process of reducing

More information

TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTION FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A LAMINAR CHANNEL FLOW

TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTION FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A LAMINAR CHANNEL FLOW TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTION FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A LAMINAR CHANNEL FLOW Rajesh Khatri 1, 1 M.Tech Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.A.T.I., vidisha

More information

Study on Pressure Distribution and Load Capacity of a Journal Bearing Using Finite Element Method and Analytical Method

Study on Pressure Distribution and Load Capacity of a Journal Bearing Using Finite Element Method and Analytical Method International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:1 No:5 1 Study on Pressure Distribution and Load Capacity of a Journal Bearing Using Finite Element Method and Method D. M.

More information

INTRODUCTION TO RENDERING TECHNIQUES

INTRODUCTION TO RENDERING TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION TO RENDERING TECHNIQUES 22 Mar. 212 Yanir Kleiman What is 3D Graphics? Why 3D? Draw one frame at a time Model only once X 24 frames per second Color / texture only once 15, frames for a feature

More information

bi directional loading). Prototype ten story

bi directional loading). Prototype ten story NEESR SG: Behavior, Analysis and Design of Complex Wall Systems The laboratory testing presented here was conducted as part of a larger effort that employed laboratory testing and numerical simulation

More information

Numeracy Targets. I can count at least 20 objects

Numeracy Targets. I can count at least 20 objects Targets 1c I can read numbers up to 10 I can count up to 10 objects I can say the number names in order up to 20 I can write at least 4 numbers up to 10. When someone gives me a small number of objects

More information

Describe the process of parallelization as it relates to problem solving.

Describe the process of parallelization as it relates to problem solving. Level 2 (recommended for grades 6 9) Computer Science and Community Middle school/junior high school students begin using computational thinking as a problem-solving tool. They begin to appreciate the

More information

Relationship between Neck-in Phenomena and Rheological Properties in Film Casting

Relationship between Neck-in Phenomena and Rheological Properties in Film Casting Article Nihon Reoroji Gakkaishi Vol.34, No.2, 97~103 (Journal of the Society of Rheology, Japan) 2006 The Society of Rheology, Japan Relationship between Neck-in Phenomena and Rheological Properties in

More information

CS 4204 Computer Graphics

CS 4204 Computer Graphics CS 4204 Computer Graphics Computer Animation Adapted from notes by Yong Cao Virginia Tech 1 Outline Principles of Animation Keyframe Animation Additional challenges in animation 2 Classic animation Luxo

More information

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow 2.1 General Considerations Of interest is water flowing in a channel with a free surface, which is usually referred to as open channel flow.

More information

FEMM 4.2 Magnetostatic Tutorial 1. David Meeker dmeeker@ieee.org. January 25, 2006. 1. Introduction

FEMM 4.2 Magnetostatic Tutorial 1. David Meeker dmeeker@ieee.org. January 25, 2006. 1. Introduction FEMM 4.2 Magnetostatic Tutorial 1 David Meeker dmeeker@ieee.org January 25, 2006 1. Introduction Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM) is a finite element package for solving 2D planar and axisymmetric

More information

CHAPTER 2 INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS

CHAPTER 2 INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS CHAPTER 2 INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS Injection moulding is the most widely used polymeric fabrication process. It evolved from metal die casting, however, unlike molten metals, polymer melts have a high

More information

ME 111: Engineering Drawing

ME 111: Engineering Drawing ME 111: Engineering Drawing Lecture # 14 (10/10/2011) Development of Surfaces http://www.iitg.ernet.in/arindam.dey/me111.htm http://www.iitg.ernet.in/rkbc/me111.htm http://shilloi.iitg.ernet.in/~psr/ Indian

More information

This tutorial provides a recipe for simulating L

This tutorial provides a recipe for simulating L Pipe Flow Tutorial for STAR-CCM+ ME 448/548 February 5, 2014 Gerald Recktenwald gerry@me.pdx.edu 1 Overview This tutorial provides a recipe for simulating laminar flow in a pipe with STAR- L CCM+. The

More information

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22 BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

More information

Visualization of 2D Domains

Visualization of 2D Domains Visualization of 2D Domains This part of the visualization package is intended to supply a simple graphical interface for 2- dimensional finite element data structures. Furthermore, it is used as the low

More information

Eco Pelmet Modelling and Assessment. CFD Based Study. Report Number 610.14351-R1D1. 13 January 2015

Eco Pelmet Modelling and Assessment. CFD Based Study. Report Number 610.14351-R1D1. 13 January 2015 EcoPelmet Pty Ltd c/- Geoff Hesford Engineering 45 Market Street FREMANTLE WA 6160 Version: Page 2 PREPARED BY: ABN 29 001 584 612 2 Lincoln Street Lane Cove NSW 2066 Australia (PO Box 176 Lane Cove NSW

More information

Set up and solve a transient problem using the pressure-based solver and VOF model.

Set up and solve a transient problem using the pressure-based solver and VOF model. Tutorial 18. Using the VOF Model This tutorial was run using ANSYS FLUENT 12.1. The results have been updated to reflect the change in the default setting of node-based smoothing for the surface tension

More information

Introduction to the TI-Nspire CX

Introduction to the TI-Nspire CX Introduction to the TI-Nspire CX Activity Overview: In this activity, you will become familiar with the layout of the TI-Nspire CX. Step 1: Locate the Touchpad. The Touchpad is used to navigate the cursor

More information

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 1, Issue2, July-2012 1 CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER ABSTRACT (1) Mr. Mainak Bhaumik M.E. (Thermal Engg.)

More information

CFD Application on Food Industry; Energy Saving on the Bread Oven

CFD Application on Food Industry; Energy Saving on the Bread Oven Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment 3 (3): 241-245, 2012 ISSN 2079-2115 IJEE an Official Peer Reviewed Journal of Babol Noshirvani University of Technology DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ijee.2012.03.03.0548 CFD

More information

Scanners and How to Use Them

Scanners and How to Use Them Written by Jonathan Sachs Copyright 1996-1999 Digital Light & Color Introduction A scanner is a device that converts images to a digital file you can use with your computer. There are many different types

More information

Learning Module 4 - Thermal Fluid Analysis Note: LM4 is still in progress. This version contains only 3 tutorials.

Learning Module 4 - Thermal Fluid Analysis Note: LM4 is still in progress. This version contains only 3 tutorials. Learning Module 4 - Thermal Fluid Analysis Note: LM4 is still in progress. This version contains only 3 tutorials. Attachment C1. SolidWorks-Specific FEM Tutorial 1... 2 Attachment C2. SolidWorks-Specific

More information

animation animation shape specification as a function of time

animation animation shape specification as a function of time animation animation shape specification as a function of time animation representation many ways to represent changes with time intent artistic motion physically-plausible motion efficiency control typically

More information

3D Drawing. Single Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces

3D Drawing. Single Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces 3D Drawing Single Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces The following document helps describe the basic process for generating a 3D representation of a simple 2D plan. For this exercise we will be

More information

A Short Introduction to Computer Graphics

A Short Introduction to Computer Graphics A Short Introduction to Computer Graphics Frédo Durand MIT Laboratory for Computer Science 1 Introduction Chapter I: Basics Although computer graphics is a vast field that encompasses almost any graphical

More information

Tutorial for Tracker and Supporting Software By David Chandler

Tutorial for Tracker and Supporting Software By David Chandler Tutorial for Tracker and Supporting Software By David Chandler I use a number of free, open source programs to do video analysis. 1. Avidemux, to exerpt the video clip, read the video properties, and save

More information

Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend

Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend STAR-CCM+ User Guide 6663 Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend This tutorial demonstrates the flow of an incompressible gas through an s-bend of constant diameter (2 cm), for both laminar and

More information

MovieClip, Button, Graphic, Motion Tween, Classic Motion Tween, Shape Tween, Motion Guide, Masking, Bone Tool, 3D Tool

MovieClip, Button, Graphic, Motion Tween, Classic Motion Tween, Shape Tween, Motion Guide, Masking, Bone Tool, 3D Tool 1 CEIT 323 Lab Worksheet 1 MovieClip, Button, Graphic, Motion Tween, Classic Motion Tween, Shape Tween, Motion Guide, Masking, Bone Tool, 3D Tool Classic Motion Tween Classic tweens are an older way of

More information

GAMBIT Demo Tutorial

GAMBIT Demo Tutorial GAMBIT Demo Tutorial Wake of a Cylinder. 1.1 Problem Description The problem to be considered is schematically in fig. 1. We consider flow across a cylinder and look at the wake behind the cylinder. Air

More information

Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

More information

RESEARCH PROJECTS. For more information about our research projects please contact us at: info@naisengineering.com

RESEARCH PROJECTS. For more information about our research projects please contact us at: info@naisengineering.com RESEARCH PROJECTS For more information about our research projects please contact us at: info@naisengineering.com Or visit our web site at: www.naisengineering.com 2 Setup of 1D Model for the Simulation

More information

Introduction to ANSYS

Introduction to ANSYS Lecture 3 Introduction to ANSYS Meshing 14. 5 Release Introduction to ANSYS Meshing 2012 ANSYS, Inc. March 27, 2014 1 Release 14.5 Introduction to ANSYS Meshing What you will learn from this presentation

More information

The Force Table Vector Addition and Resolution

The Force Table Vector Addition and Resolution Name School Date The Force Table Vector Addition and Resolution Vectors? I don't have any vectors, I'm just a kid. From Flight of the Navigator Explore the Apparatus/Theory We ll use the Force Table Apparatus

More information

The Viscosity of Fluids

The Viscosity of Fluids Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et

More information

DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING

DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING RESEARCH PAPERS FACULTY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN TRNAVA SLOVAK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY IN BRATISLAVA 2014 Volume 22, Special Number DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING

More information

Stereoscopic 3D Digital Theater System. Operator Manual (MI-2100)

Stereoscopic 3D Digital Theater System. Operator Manual (MI-2100) Stereoscopic 3D Digital Theater System Operator Manual (MI-2100) -1- All information contained in or disclosed by this document is confidential and propriety to masterimage Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred

More information

STRAND: Number and Operations Algebra Geometry Measurement Data Analysis and Probability STANDARD:

STRAND: Number and Operations Algebra Geometry Measurement Data Analysis and Probability STANDARD: how August/September Demonstrate an understanding of the place-value structure of the base-ten number system by; (a) counting with understanding and recognizing how many in sets of objects up to 50, (b)

More information

EDEXCEL FUNCTIONAL SKILLS PILOT TEACHER S NOTES. Maths Level 2. Chapter 5. Shape and space

EDEXCEL FUNCTIONAL SKILLS PILOT TEACHER S NOTES. Maths Level 2. Chapter 5. Shape and space Shape and space 5 EDEXCEL FUNCTIONAL SKILLS PILOT TEACHER S NOTES Maths Level 2 Chapter 5 Shape and space SECTION H 1 Perimeter 2 Area 3 Volume 4 2-D Representations of 3-D Objects 5 Remember what you

More information

Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid

Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three

More information