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Y8 Travel Writing Lockdown Scheme of Work

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1 1 Y8 Travel Writing Lockdown Scheme of Work Week 1 (8 th -12 th June) Lessons 1-4 Lesson 1 - Welcome to the Y8 Travel Writing Unit Welcome to the Travel Writing unit, Y8! So, you might be asking, what will I be doing and learning in this unit? The aims of this unit are: To read examples of travel writing, and hopefully experience the powerful sense of people and place that this writing gives. To reflect on what you have learnt about the people and places described. To comment on travel writers use of language, in particular, analysing how writers use language features in their pieces. To analyse the attitudes of the narrators/writers, in particular, reflecting upon the effects that their experiences of place has on them. To complete some of your own Travel Writing, where you use language precisely. In the final lessons, you will also read a selection of extracts from different novels set around the world. So, we are going to start with Travel Writing. You might be thinking, what is exactly is Travel Writing? It s essentially a type or genre of non-fiction writing, which focuses on place. There are two different types of Travel Writing that you will encounter in this unit:

2 2 The first, also known as Travel Literature, is probably closest in style to autobiography, where the writer s encounters with a place, or travels from place to place, form the backbone of the story. This type of Travel Writing follows one person s account of places they have been and people they have seen. But it s not just place, it s about the people that the writers meet, and the things in the places. This style is informal and descriptive. The second, is advisory travel writing that might be found in newspapers or in travel books, such as the Lonely Planet Guidebook, or in newspapers, which tell us about a place which readers might choose to visit. This is writing about how to travel, when to travel and advice on travelling, all with the reader in mind. Their purpose is similar to the film or theatre critic who reviews a movie or play to tell us whether it is worth seeing. Their style is likely to be quite factual. So, in this unit, you will encounter a range of travel writing examples of both types. For example, there is a modern article from a Lonely Planet guidebook to Sri Lanka, an account of a six month boat ride from England to Hawaii written by a female traveller in the 18 th century, and 21 st century blog posts about travel etiquette. In the final few lessons, I have also included a range of world literature - fiction texts which describe places around the world in lovely detail. Why are we doing a Travel Writing unit when we can t travel ourselves? Well, it s also a good idea to introduce you to the word, vicarious, which basically means, to experience something remotely, which is what we ve all been experiencing a lot of recently. So, hopefully it will be a fun way of experiencing some beautiful places in the world vicariously and reading and analysing a variety of non-fiction and fictional texts. But firstly, why do people travel? Before we look at some consummate travel writing, let s start by considering why people travel, and what they might experience while travelling. You will be doing some activities that are designed to make you think about why people like the experience of travel. Have a look at this article (A) from the Guardian newspaper which was written this year. It s about Joss and Romy, a young British couple, who, after living in New Zealand for a few years, decided to return to the UK, but they didn t want to leave behind their trusty and cherished Toyota Land cruiser, so they decided to drive it 25,000 miles back to their hometown in Bristol. Writing example A (Feature Article) Let s check you understand by answering these reading questions on the article. 1. Why did Romy and Joss decide to move to New Zealand? 2. What did Joss say they needed to properly explore the South Island? 3. How long would the drive be from New Zealand to Bristol and how long would it take? 4. Summarise two of the highlights that he mentioned. 5. Why was crossing the Iran-Pakistani border a hairy moment? 6. What does Joss hope for in the future? 7. How would you describe Joss? Write down 4 points, supported by quotations.

3 3 8. Reading this article, what do you think the experience of travel means to Joss and Romy? 4 points no quotations. Lesson 2 Now, here are a selection of questions that I would like you to, if you can, ask a member of your family about their experience of travel. Try and make some brief notes about their answers as you listen to them. Family Travel Experiences 1. Are there any places that you would particularly like to go? 2. Can you tell me about the kind of things that you usually do on holiday? 3. Can you tell me something about your last holiday? 4. Did you often visit relations when you were younger? 5. Do you ever prefer to spend your vacation at home? 6. Do you often read travel reviews? 7. Do you enjoy planning holidays? 8. Have you ever spent too much on holiday? 9. How do you most like to travel? 10. How important is travel to you? 11. How is your taste in holidays changing? Based on the article you have read, and your family member s responses to the questions, can you write 2 paragraphs answering this question: Why do people travel? Lesson 3 Literary Travel Writing So, hopefully, last lesson, you had an opportunity to reflect on why people travel. Perhaps you established that they liked to see new and interesting places around the world that are culturally different and to have those new experiences. Now, let s consider why people read travel literature. 1. Why do you think this is a genre that people like? Write down some ideas. This is what I produced: It s interesting to read about different places and cultures and find out about them. Travel literature celebrates the difference in people, cultures and customs, and places around the world, and helps other people understand other people and places. It also helps the reader plan their own trips and avoid costly mistakes while travelling. It enables people to travel to far-off destinations that they have never seen! We will start with Literary Travel Writing. In the following lessons, we are going to break down some of the features of literary travel writing, and approach them one by one, so that you understand how to create your own travel writing. Here is an example of literary travel writing by the American author Bill Bryson. In this extract, he has travelled to the Arctic Circle in Norway.

4 4 Writing Example B (Travel Writing) On my sixteenth day in Hammerfest, it happened. I was returning from the headland after my morning walk and in an empty piece of sky above the sky there appeared a translucent cloud of many colors pinks and greens and blues and pale purples. It glimmered and seemed to swirl. Slowly it stretched across the sky. It had an oddly oily quality about it, like the rainbows you sometimes see in a pool of petrol. I stood transfixed. I knew from my reading that the Northern Lights are immensely high up in the atmosphere, something like two hundred miles up, but this show seemed to be suspended just above the town. There are two kinds of Northern Lights the curtains of shimmering gossamer that everyone has seen in pictures, and the rarer gas clouds that I was gazing at now. They are never the same twice. Sometimes they shoot wraithlike across the sky., like smoke in a wind tunnel, moving at enormous speed, and sometimes they hang like luminous drapes of glittering spears of light, and very occasionally perhaps once or twice in a lifetime they creep out from every point on the horizon and flow together overhead in a spectacular, silent explosion of light and color. In the depthless blackness of the countryside, where you may be a hundred miles from the nearest artificial light, they are capable of the most weird and unsettling optical illusions. They can seem to come out of the sky and fly at you at enormous speed, as if trying to kill you. Apparently, it s terrifying. To this day, many Lapps earnestly believe that if you show the lights a white handkerchief or a sheer of white paper, they will come and take you away. This display was relatively small stuff, and it lasted for only a few minutes, but it was the most beautiful thing I had ever seen and it would do me until something better came along. In the evening, something did a display of lights that went on for hours. They were of only one color, that eerie luminous green you see on radar screens, but the activity was frantic. Narrow swirls of light would sweep across the great dome of sky, then hang there like vapor trails. Sometimes they flashed across the sky like falling stars and sometimes they spun languorously, reminding me of the lazy way smoke used to rise from my father s pipe when he was reading. Sometimes the lights would flicker brightly in the west, then vanish in an instant and reappear a moment later behind me, as if teasing me. I was constantly turning and twisting to see it all. You have no idea how immense the sky is until you try to monitor it all. The eerie thing was how silent it was. Such activity seemed to demand at the very least an occasional low boom or a series of static-like crackles, but there was none. All the immense energy was spent without a sound. Tasks: 1. How does Bill Bryson present the Northern lights in this passage? (5 points with quotations) 2. What do you think the typical features of travel writing are? Jot down as many ideas as you can. It is possible to identify some typical features that literary travel writing contains. For example, did you spot the descriptive passages and the personal or cultural anecdote? You might have also noticed that it has an informal tone, like that of an autobiography, and that the events are related in chronological order. So, let s just stop and reflect on what we ve learnt so far: Travel writing is a style of writing which often resembles autobiography, with strong emphasis on the thoughts and feelings of the writer. It often uses descriptive language and personal anecdote to create a powerful sense of people and places, and the events explained are described as part of a narrative placed in the order that they took place.

5 5 Lesson 4 Anecdote After having read an example of literary travel writing, we are going to spend the next lessons looking separately at some different features that make up literary travel writing. The first feature that helps to make up literary travel writing is anecdote. An anecdote is a brief account of an interesting incident. Much travel writing contains interesting anecdotes. 1. Choose a story from your life that still amuses or interests you and prepare it as an anecdote to amuse someone else. Have a think about it. Does this story last long enough to build up to an ending? Try to jot down the shape of your story, and then, when you are ready, tell your anecdote to a member of your family or a friend. As you are writing, use these prompts to help you. Try to shape your story. If they are around, can you ask family or friends to supply you with more detail? Think about how you will describe the setting or characters, especially if your chosen audience doesn t know the places or people involved. Do you want your account to be accurate or are you prepared to invent or borrow details from other events to entertain your listeners? After you have told them, use your listener s reactions to improve or alter your anecdote, then tell it to someone else.

6 6 Week 2 - Week 2 (15th -19th June) Lessons 5-7 Lesson 5 Studying Travel Writing Extracts Have a look at these two examples of travel writing: Writing Example C: The Beautiful and The Damned from The Bicycle Diaries by Rebecca Lowe In 2015, Rebecca Lowe embarked on a 12 month long bicycle trip across Europe and the Middle-East. Here she describes her first night in Tripoli. Tripoli at dusk is a dispiriting place. As I cycle from the boat into the city centre, around me loom a series of sombre, grey tower blocks, rising like skeletal sentinels among a wasteland of debris. Several are sprinkled with bullet holes, I note with mild alarm, and I nudge Maud (my bike) along a little faster. I m fairly sure the local mercenaries have downed tools for the time being, but I m already far too far behind schedule to risk being shot on my first day (though it would admittedly do wonders for my social media profile). I m hoping to stay with the friend of a friend of a friend, but am yet to hear back from him. It s worrying, as the motels look poky and miserable, oozing an aura of indecency and regret. I distract myself from my plight by buying a tea in a grimy café and counting the perplexing number of passing Mercedes and BMWs, which seem by far the most popular car in this far-from-affluent city. Two hours later, I finally hear from my contact, B. I am hugely relieved, and almost immediately the city s shadowy nooks seem sunnier, its sharp edges softer. Within ten minutes, I m being warmly welcomed by B and his Filipino housekeeper (apparently all houses have one) in his carpet shop just half a mile away. The sectarian conflict in the city is under control now, I m told, and I feel a little foolish for conjuring spectres out of the undergrowth. How different everything seems when you re no longer alone and abandoned in the dark! B is a 27-year-old Australian who moved to Lebanon seven years ago. He enjoys the freedom here, he says, which seems to boil down to driving without a licence and not paying his taxes. I ask him about the cars and he tells me it s due to people s idolisation of Germany and their superficiality. Plastic surgery is reportedly huge, and often deliberately conspicuous. Everyone wants to flash their cash and status. In Tripoli, curiously, this showiness goes hand in hand with a strong social conservatism. Most women wear hijabs, and B tells me he wouldn t want to be seen drinking in public. Another friend later tells me that the city is surprisingly tolerant, despite its image. You sometimes get burkinis and bikinis on the same beach, and nobody minds, she says. But all people remember are the jihadists splashed across the papers.

7 7 The next morning, as I prepare for my cycle to Beirut, B warns me that the biggest storm of the year is due to hit today. As I stand drowning under a lashing sheet of rain that soaks me instantly to the core, following yet another puncture 30km down the road, I can t help feeling that it may have been the wrong decision. For half an hour I wait, helpless and sodden, as the sky turns leaden and swampy and slowly engulfs the entire Mediterranean Sea. Then, just as I m losing hope of rescue, a car finally stops beside me and two textbook murderers (dirty trousers, rakish facial hair) get out and offer me a ride an offer I know I should on no account accept. Minutes later, we re zooming down the road to Byblos. The men give me a satsuma, which I devour like somebody who hasn t eaten for ten years (it s been about ten minutes), and stop every mile or so to check Maud hasn t fallen out the back (she hasn t). They then drop me directly outside the restaurant where I ve arranged to meet a friend; and, with a wave, they re gone. Once again, human kindness trumps doom-laden distrust, I think relievedly. Is the world really crawling with as many psychopaths as the media would have us believe? Maud the name of Rebecca Lowe s bicycle Byblos a city in Lebanon Writing Example D: The Bazaars of Baghdad by Isabella Bird Isabella Bird was a famous 19 th century traveller who wrote about her experiences. In this extract, she describes the bazaars (or markets) in Baghdad, which was then a city in Persia (now it is the capital of Iraq). Baghdad s bazaars, which many people regard as the finest in the East outside of Istanbul, are of enormous extent and very great variety. Many are of brick, with well-built domed roofs, and sides arcaded both above and below, and are wide and airy. Some are of wood, all are covered, and admit light scantily, only from the roof. Those which supply the poorer classes are apt to be ruinous and squalid ramshackle, to say the truth, with an air of decay about them, and their roofs are merely rough timber, roughly thatched with reeds or date tree fronds. Of splendour there is none anywhere, and of cleanliness there are few traces. The old, narrow, and filthy bazaars in which the gold and silversmiths ply their trade are of all the most interesting. The trades have their separate localities, and the buyer who is in search of cotton goods, silk stuffs, carpets, cotton yarn, gold and silver thread, readymade clothing, weapons, saddlery, rope, fruit, meat, grain, fish, jewellery, muslins, copper pots, etc., has a whole alley of contiguous shops devoted to the sale of the same article to choose from. At any hour of daylight at this season, progress through the bazaars is slow. They are crowded, and almost entirely with men. It is only the poorer women who market for themselves, and in twos and threes, at certain hours of the day. In a whole afternoon, among thousands of men, I saw only five women, tall, shapeless, badly-made-up bundles, carried mysteriously along, rather by high, loose, canary-yellow leather boots than by feet. The face is covered with a thick black gauze mask, or cloth, and the head and remainder of the form with a dark blue or black sheet, which is clutched by the hand below the nose. The

8 8 walk is one of tottering decrepitude. All the business transacted in the bazaars is a matter of bargaining, and as Arabs shout at the top of their voices, and buyers and sellers are equally keen, the roar is tremendous. The Arab women go about the streets unveiled, and with the aba covering their very poor clothing, but it is not clutched closely enough to conceal the extraordinary tattooing which the Bedouin women everywhere regard as ornamental. There are artists in Baghdad who make their living by this mode of decorating the person, and vie with each other in the elaboration of their patterns. I saw several women tattooed with two wreaths of blue flowers on their bosoms linked by a blue chain, palm fronds on the throat, stars on the brow and chin, and bands round the wrists and ankles. These disfigurements, and large gold or silver filigree buttons placed outside one nostril by means of a wire passed through it, worn by married women, are much admired. When these women sell country produce in the markets, they cover their heads with the ordinary chadar. The streets are narrow, and the walls, which are built of fire-burned bricks, are high. Windows to the streets are common, and the oriel windows, with their warm brown lattices projecting over the roadways at irregular heights, are strikingly picturesque. Not less so are latticework galleries, which are often thrown across the street to connect the two houses of wealthy residents, and the sitting-rooms with oriel windows, which likewise bridge the roadways. Solid doorways with iron-clasped and iron-studded doors give an impression of security, and suggest comfort and to some extent home life, and sprays of orange trees, hanging over walls, and fronds of date palms give an aspect of pleasantness to the courtyards. The best parts of the city, where the great bazaars, large dwelling-houses, and most of the mosques are, is surrounded by a labyrinth of alleys, fringing off into streets growing meaner till they cease altogether among open spaces, given up to holes, heaps, rubbish, the slaughter of animals, and in some favoured spots to the production of vegetables. Then come the walls, which are of kiln-burned bricks, and have towers intended for guns at intervals. The wastes within the walls have every element of decay and meanness, the wastes without, where the desert sands sweep up to the very foot of the fortifications, have many elements of grandeur. Istanbul now the capital of Turkey Aba a loose over-garment which covers the whole body except the head, feet and hands Bedouin a nomadic tribe Chadar a long garment worn by Muslim women which covers the body and obscures part of the face Bazaar a market Oriel window a type of bay window that juts out from the wall Please have a go at these close reading questions based on the two extracts Question 1 Read again the first two paragraphs of Writing Example C

9 9 Choose four statements below which are TRUE. 1. The writer thinks that Tripoli is gloomy and depressing 2. She arrived in Tripoli on a boat 3. There are guards at the tower blocks 4. She feels a little scared by the environment 5. The writer s journey has been delayed 6. The writer has been shot at 7. She has driven a Mercedes around the city 8. Tripoli is a rich city Question 2 You need to refer to both extract C and D for this question. The writers in both extracts describe different things about the cities they visit. Use details from both sources to write a summary of the different things the writer describes in Source A and the things described by the writer in Source B. (8 marks) Advice to help you. Write 3 or 4 short paragraphs, each paragraph focusing on both articles. Try to show that you understand exactly what the things are, and how exactly they are different in the places. Try to infer/read into both texts and say why the things are different. Extension Task Enter an international essay writing competition! Have a look at this international essay competition. The Queen s Commonwealth Essay competition is a Writing Competition for aspiring young writers to share their thoughts, ideas and experiences on key global issues, and have that hard work and achievement celebrated internationally. Each year, aspiring young writers are asked to submit their pieces in response to a theme. For the 2020 Competition this year, the theme is Climate Action and the Commonwealth. As Y8 students, your topic is focused on the increasing youth movement across the Commonwealth and the ongoing climate crisis. If you d like to enter, choose one of these essay topics: 1. Imagine you are Planet Earth, what would you say to humans? 2. A Blue Commonwealth: it is not too late to save our oceans. True or false? 3. In 2019, students in more than 100 countries walked out of school to protest climate change. How can young people get their voices heard and make a difference? 4. My planet, my place. Even though it says Essay Competition, it s actually not an essay - you can choose the form of your creative writing. It just has to focus on the question and be your

10 10 own work, but it can be a poem, letter, description, essay or article. The maximum word count is 750 words for the Junior Category. If you would like to enter this, please start writing, and Ms. Winter on to let her know, and she can help you! The SGS deadline is the 28th June for submitting your work to KW, who will then submit it on your behalf, or the 30 th June (before 5pm) if you are submitting it yourself. More information can be found here: Lesson 6 Understanding and applying the diary form Another important form of writing to understand when learning about travel literature is the diary form. Diaries record the events of our lives, day by day. They range from notes of times and reminders to pages of detail. Diaries may be written only to organise the writer s day, or as a personal record, but they may also be written with other readers in mind. Here is a diary extract for the beginning of a New Year from a very famous British writer, Virginia Woolf, who was writing in the 19 th century. You will find that quite a few of the texts in this Home Learning Pack are older, as we would like you to have experience of reading and understanding literature from the past. Writing Example E (Diary) please read this piece: This is the turn of the tide. The days are lengthening. Today was fine from start to finish the first we have had, I think, since we came. And for the first time I walked my Northease walk and saw the moon ride at 3, pale, very thin, in a pure blue sky, above wide misty flattened fields, as if it were early on a June morning. Here are my resolutions for the next 3 months; the next lap of the year. First, to have none. Not to be tied. Second, to be free and kindly with myself, not goading it to parties: to sit rather privately reading in the studio. To make a good job of The Waves. To care nothing for making money. As for Nelly [cook-housekeeper], to stop irritation by the assurance that nothing is worth irritation; if it comes back, she must go. then not to slip this time into the easiness of letting her stay. Then well the chief resolution is the most important not to make resolutions. Sometimes to read, sometimes not to read. To go out yes but to stay home in spite of being asked. As for clothes, I think to buy good ones. Virginia Woolf

11 11 1. Now, please jot down brief answers to these questions. a) What types of detail does this writer record? b) Why do you think she records these? c) What do you think was her purpose and for what audience was she writing? d) How would you describe the style of these diaries? 2. My diary entry Jot down a diary for yesterday. Once you have done this, think about your selections. Which incidents did you record? What sort of events did you leave out? Was it easy to choose? How much did you reshape your experiences? Lesson 7: A Life in the Day of A Life in the Day of is a regular article in the weekly Sunday Times Magazine. Life in the Day of article entries follow a similar pattern. This article features a famous, or a not-so famous people, who documents their typical day as the day begins until the evening, and makes more general comments on their day when they fit into the pattern of a regular day. Reading these types of articles will hopefully let you understand the type of tone employed by travel writers, as it is autobiographical. I ve included an article by Jacquie Davis, a female bodyguard, about a typical day in her life. Writing Example G (Article) Please read this article: 27 January, 2019 Earlier this month The Sunday Times reported that one of the Duchess of Sussex s female bodyguards was stepping down after less than a year on the job. Jacquie Davis, 60, understands the challenges that the unnamed woman faced: Davis left the police in the 1980s to become one of the UK s first female bodyguards. Widowed after the death of her second husband, she lives in Hertfordshire and runs Optimal Risk Management, providing bodyguard teams worldwide. I m normally up around 5.30am and the first thing I do is feed Delta Force Donny, my cat. Then I light a cigarette and make coffee. I turn on the global news so I know what s going on while answering s that have come overnight from clients or their security and assistants in different time zones. Sometimes they re businessmen, royals or celebrities, but it s all kept strictly anonymous and we use codenames for safety. By 7.30am, I m showered and dressed. I work in tracksuit bottoms if I m at home, otherwise clients set the dress code. We re often suited and booted, and it can be helpful if we re hidden, so sometimes I m in something grey-looking. I usually work in teams of between four and 12.

12 12 One of the advantages of being a woman in the job is that, if you re not huge muscle, it s assumed you re an assistant or a friend. I watched Bodyguard on the BBC along with everyone else. It was great drama to begin with, then it became totally unrealistic. Every day is different. If I ve got a client visiting London, I ll spend the day recceing the locations on their itinerary, which often include a whole floor of a swanky hotel, where they have security staying either side of them. I have to check that we can leave by a different route to the one we came in by, and we often use the hotel s kitchen, like they do in movies, if famous people don t want to be seen. I believe Meghan s bodyguard is stepping down because she is leaving the police force. The job takes you away from home for long periods, so puts a strain on home life and relationships, and being on alert constantly can be draining. Everything we do is about making the client s life smooth. You have to be prepared to put your own body between the client and the threat, while your backup team deals with the situation. On journeys, I sit up front with the driver to watch the roads. I ve already worked out where the choke points are: areas like bridges where you might get blocked off in an attack. Kidnap threat increases in choke points. I check intelligence on my phone, to see if anything like the London or Paris terror attacks is happening or whether any personal threats towards my client have come in. At lunchtime on these jobs we eat where they go somewhere like Mosimann s or Novikov in London and usually Michelin-starred because we don t leave their side. We take a table nearby, where we can watch what s going on, and always stay one course ahead of the client in case they want to leave quickly. There s not much time to enjoy the fancy food. A strict rule is that you cannot ever drink on the job, whether it lasts one day or three months; you have to be on the ball. Evenings involve much of the same and I m in my hotel room again by midnight, organising everything for the next day. I m an insomniac, a consequence of never living a nine-to-five life. I don t really have days off, but I swim 30 lengths three mornings a week to keep fit, and I love the ordinary when I m at home.

13 13 There is nothing like a Greggs sausage roll after months of posh restaurants. I spend the evenings in my dressing gown watching EastEnders with Donny, which is about as far from global news as you can get. WORDS OF WISDOM: BEST ADVICE I WAS GIVEN Always be kind to people ADVICE I D GIVE Be aware of who and what is around you WHAT I WISH I D KNOWN Your actions can affect other people s lives: think carefully before you act Now, answer these brief reading questions. 1. What is the name of her company and what does it do? 2. What does she say is one of the advantages of being a woman in her job? 3. What do her and her team do at restaurants in case the client needs to leave quickly? Longer answer questions use quotations to support each of your points. 4. How would you describe Jacquie s life? (3) 5. What impression do you get of her? (3) 6. Write your own Life in the Day of for an audience who doesn t know you. ( words) Try to make it interesting and separate your writing in short paragraphs, like in the example from the Sunday Times. Summing up Hopefully we have learnt that Travel literature: Is a style of writing which might resemble autobiography, with strong emphasis on the thoughts and feelings of the writer. Has events described as part of a narrative placed in the order that they took place. Can have a diary like tone and contain anecdote.

14 14 Week 3 (22nd-26th June) Lessons 8-11 Lesson 8 Using Description in Travel Writing We are going to move on to another features of literary travel writing: Using descriptive language to create a powerful sense of people and places. Here is an extract which contains passages of description that might help you. This novel, For Whom The Bell Tolls, by Ernest Hemingway, is set during the Spanish Civil War. A group of guerrilla fighters (members of a small independent group taking part in irregular fighting, typically against larger regular forces) are hiding in the mountains, in a guerrilla camp in a cave. Three of the inhabitants of the camp, Fernando (a guerrilla fighter in his mid-30s) and Pilar/ Pablo s woman (Pablo is the leader of the camp) and Maria, talk about their experiences in Valencia, a Spanish town. Writing Example G (Extract from a novel) And what did thee when not eating nor drinking? I left without even seeing the sea, Fernando said. I did not like the people. Oh, get out of here, you old maid, the woman of Pablo said. Get out of here before you make me sick. In Valencia I had the best time of my life. Vamosl Valencia. Don t talk to me of Valencia. What did thee there.? Maria asked. The woman of Pablo sat down at the table with a bowl of coffee, a piece of bread and a bowl of the stew. Qui? what did we there? I was there when Finito had a contract for three fights at the Feria. Never have I seen so many people. Never have I seen cafes so crowded. For hours it would be impossible to get a seat and it was impossible to board the tram cars. In Valencia there was movement all day and all night. But what did you do.? Maria asked. All things, the woman said. We went to the beach and lay in the water and boats with sails were hauled up out of the sea by oxen.

15 15 The oxen driven to the water until they must swim; then harnessed to the boats, and, when they found their feet, staggering up the sand. Ten yokes of oxen dragging a boat with sails out of the sea in the morning with the line of the small waves breaking on the beach. That is Valencia. But what did thee besides watch oxen? We ate in pavilions on the sand. Pastries made of cooked and shredded fish and red and green peppers and small nuts like grains of rice. Pastries delicate and flaky and the fish of a richness that was incredible. Prawns fresh from the sea sprinkled with lime juice. They were pink and sweet and there were four bites to a prawn. Of those we ate many. Then we ate paella with fresh sea food, clams in their shells, mussels, crayfish, and small eels. Then we ate even smaller eels alone cooked in oil and as tiny as bean sprouts and curled in all directions and so tender they disappeared in the mouth without chewing. All the time drinking a white wine, cold, light and good at thirty centimos the botde. And for an end; melon. That is the home of the melon. The melon of Castile is better, Fernando said. Que va" said the woman of Pablo. The melon of Castile is not good. The melon of Valencia for eating. When I think of those melons long as one s arm, green like the sea and crisp and juicy to cut and sweeter than the early morning in summer. Aye, when I think of those smallest eels, tiny, delicate and in mounds on the plate. Also the beer in pitchers all through the afternoon, the beer sweating in its coldness in pitchers the size of water jugs. One way writers can create vivid description is by using lists of details within sentences, for example: Pastries made of cooked and shredded fish and red and green peppers and small nuts like grains of rice. 1. A) Write down another example of this list technique from the text. B) What is the effect of this way of describing things? 2. Descriptive texts may also use words describing colour and texture. Write down some examples of words or phrases which use the senses of sight and touch. 3. The text uses mostly long, complex sentences, with many additional phrases, e.g.,: When I think of those melons long as one s arm, green like the sea and crisp and juicy to cut and sweeter than the early morning in summer. A) Why do you think the writer uses these rather than short, simple sentences? (Think about the effect short sentences would have how would the text feel different?

16 16 B) How do the long sentences, full of detail, help us to visualise the scene?) 4. Writers can use imagery to bring their descriptions alive. Using your own words, write down the picture the following phrases create in your mind. Aye, when I think of those smallest eels, tiny, delicate and in mounds on the plate. Also the beer in pitchers all through the afternoon, the beer sweating in its coldness in pitchers the size of water jugs. So, you should now be able to add descriptive techniques as another feature of travel writing. You should hopefully know now that travel writers refer to sights, sounds and textures, use imagery (similes and metaphors) lists, and can use long sentences, to create an impression of detailed description. Lesson 9 Writing Example H (Travel Writing) Now we are going to look at two other pieces of literary travel writing. A Hawaiian Archipelago, by Isabella Bird, and Hitching in the Yukon, by Kate Pullinger. Please read both. As you read them, can you tell they are literary travel writing through their features? (Typical features are: descriptive passages, anecdote, diary-like tone, chronological explanation of events). The Hawaiian Archipelago Bird, Isabella L. (Isabella Lucy), I.L.B. LETTER II. HAWAIIAN HOTEL, HONOLULU, Jan. 26th. Yesterday morning at 6.30 I was awoken by the news that The Islands were in sight. Oahu in the distance, a group of grey, barren peaks rising verdureless out of the lonely sea, was not an exception to the rule that the first sight of land is a disappointment. Owing to the clear atmosphere, we seemed only five miles off, but in reality we were twenty, and the land improved as we neared it. It was the fiercest day we had had, the deck was almost too hot to stand upon, the sea and sky were both magnificently blue, and the unveiled sun turned every minute ripple into a diamond flash. As we approached, the island changed its character. There were lofty peaks, truly--grey and red, sun-scorched and wind-bleached, glowing here and there with traces of their fiery origin; but they were cleft by deep chasms and ravines of cool shadow and entrancing green, and falling water streaked their sides--a most welcome vision after eleven months of the desert sea and the dusty browns of

17 17 Australia and New Zealand. Nearer yet, and the coast line came into sight, fringed by the feathery cocoanut tree of the tropics, and marked by a long line of surf. The grand promontory of Diamond Head, its fiery sides now softened by a haze of green, terminated the wavy line of palms; then the Punchbowl, a very perfect extinct crater, brilliant with every shade of red volcanic ash, blazed against the green skirts of the mountains. We were close to the coral reef before the cry, There s Honolulu! made us aware of the proximity of the capital of the island kingdom, and then, indeed, its existence had almost to be taken upon trust, for besides the lovely wooden and grass huts, with deep verandahs, which nestled under palms and bananas on soft green sward, margined by the bright sea sand, only two church spires and a few grey roofs appeared above the trees. We were just outside the reef, and near enough to hear that deep sound of the surf which, through the ever serene summer years girdles the Hawaiian Islands with perpetual thunder, before the pilot glided alongside, bringing the news which Mark Twain had prepared us to receive with interest, that Prince Bill had been unanimously elected to the throne. The surf ran white and pure over the environing coral reef, and as we passed through the narrow channel, we almost saw the coral forests deep down under the Nevada s keel; the coral fishers plied their graceful trade; canoes with outriggers rode the combers, and glided with inconceivable rapidity round our ship; amphibious brown beings sported in the transparent waves; and within the reef lay a calm surface of water of a wonderful blue, entered by a narrow, intricate passage of the deepest indigo. And beyond the reef and beyond the blue, nestling among cocoanut trees and bananas, umbrella trees and breadfruits, oranges, mangoes, hibiscus, algaroba, and passion-flowers, almost hidden in the deep, dense greenery, was Honolulu. Bright blossom of a summer sea! Fair Paradise of the Pacific! Definitions Oahu - the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to about two-thirds of the population of the U.S. state of Hawaii. Cleft- divided Promontory Outcrop/Headland/cape Environing- surrounding Combers- waves Nevada- the boat which transported Isabella Bird from New Zealand to Hawaii Algaroba a tree with edible pods 1. How does Isabella Bird present her first sighting of Hawaii? (4 points with quotations) 2. Can you find any more techniques (than the ones we studied last lesson) in this type of travel writing? Write them down here. You hopefully have noticed that many more descriptive writing techniques can be used in travel writing. And to help you, here s a list of even more features/techniques that might be employed in literary travel writing! Alliteration: Repetition of the same first consonant sound

18 18 Contrast: Identify or highlighting differences between two subjects, places, persons, things or ideas to emphasize their difference Emotive language: words that create an emotional reaction in the reader Hyperbole: exaggeration of ideas for emphasis Onomatopoeia: a word which imitates the natural sound of a thing Personification: giving human qualities to nonhuman things or animals Repetition: to repeat a word or phrase for emphasis Rhetorical question: a question asked that does not require an answer; used to place an idea in the reader's mind The rule of three: any similar word or meaning repeated 3 times for emphasis. Lesson 10 Hitching through the Yukon Kate Pullinger is a Canadian writer who lives in London. Here she describes the experience of hitchhiking through the Yukon region of Western Canada. This is the smallest and most sparsely populated of Canada s three territories. Read the following extract (Writing Example J-travel writing) Hitching through the Yukon The Yukon is basically the Great Outdoors, and not much else. Exceptionally underpopulated, with less than 25,000 people in an area almost as large as France, it is a mountain-lake-forest-river-lover s dream come true. I think the best way to see it, at least in summer, is to hitch-hike. I have always found hitching in the Yukon relatively fast, easy and safe, mainly because towns are far apart and nobody is going to leave anyone standing on the side of the road in the middle of nowhere at -20 o C or, in summer, in all that dust. Last summer I stood on the side of the road outside the Yukon s capital, Whitehorse. My thumb stuck out, I was heading for Dawson City 333 miles away. The first vehicle to stop was an old Ford truck, bed on back with two extremely large sled dogs hanging out over its sides. They barked at me ferociously. A woman jumped out and asked how far I was going. I told her, and she said she was only going fifty miles, but that was a good start. So I jumped in. She was young, had long plaited hair, and was wearing men s shorts and a felt hat. Next to her sat a small, dark baby, who looked at me curiously. The woman didn t say anything so neither did I. After a few miles she reached above the windscreen and pulled a cigar from behind the sunshade. She smoked it as she drove, clenching it between her teeth when she changed gear. I looked out of the window over the hills and vast, peopleless landscape.

19 19 After fifty miles she pulled off the road on to the dirt track that led to her house and I thanked her and jumped out. I slammed the truck door so it shut properly and she and the baby sped off. The sled dogs barked at me until I was far out of their sight. I stood again at the side of the road. A small Toyota two-door stopped. I put my pack in the back seat and climbed in front. This driver was also a woman, she wore a skirt and her hair was wet. We began to chat and I learned that she was just driving home from a swimming lesson in Whitehorse a trip of 200 miles, which she made every Friday. There aren t very many swimming pools in the Yukon. The conversation led to a familiar story: she came up to the Yukon ten years ago to visit a friend and stayed. She said she wouldn t leave for anything and now her brother lives up here too. I began to think there must be something special about this place. Where she dropped me it was very quiet. There were trees everywhere I looked. In fact, all I could see was trees. I had to wait here around twenty minutes before I heard what sounded like a truck. I saw the dust before I could see it, great clouds of dirt billowing up into the sky. Then I saw the truck and stood on my tiptoes and tried to make my thumb bigger. The driver saw me and started to slow down. It took him a long time to do so and he went past me. I could no longer see, there was so much dust, and I held my scarf over my mouth. When it settled I walked to the truck a long way and negotiated the lift another fifty miles. After hoisting my pack up I climbed in. The driver started the engine and headed down the road. I smiled to myself, thinking I was in front of the dust now. The truck driver seemed to change gears a hundred times before we were up to the right speed. Steaming along, past the endless lakes and hills, he told me about his children going to school, having babies and working in Edmonton. I listened and then asked how long he d been here. He said he came for a year thirty years ago. There is something about this place. Kate Pullinger Please answer these questions about Hitching in the Yukon. 1. What do you notice about the author s style of writing? 2. What do you think the author s main message is? 3. Who is it aimed at? Summing up A student two years ago wrote some advice for future students about travel writing. Advice for Travel Writing Write in the first person, past tense (or present if the action really justifies it), and make your story a personal account, interwoven with facts, description and observation. Try to come up with a narrative thread that will run throughout the piece, linking the beginning and end; a point you are making. The piece should flow, but don't tell the entire trip chronologically, cherry pick the best bits, anecdotes and descriptions, that will tell the story for you.

20 20 Don't use phrases and words you wouldn't use in speech and don't try to be too clever or formal; the best writing sounds natural and has personality. It should sound like you. Don't try to be really hilarious, unless you're sure it's working. Check your facts! It's good to work in some interesting bits of information, perhaps things you've learned from talking to people, or in books or other research, but use reliable sources and doublecheck they are correct. Moments that affected you personally don't necessarily make interesting reading. Avoid tales of personal problems (missed buses) unless relevant to the story. Focus on telling the reader something about the place, about an experience that they might have too if they were to repeat the trip. Have they missed anything out? Now, it s over to you. Lessons 11 - Personal Travel Writing Complete your own piece of travel writing (300 words) Can you remember a time when you travelled somewhere? This lesson, I would like you to complete a piece of your own travel writing. Have a think about a place where you have been that you can use. Please try as many of the features of travel writing as possible in your piece. Here s an example of a Y8 student who went to All Points East festival last year in London and wrote about it. Have a read through if you d like some inspiration. Writing Example I All Points East, London By Henry Tozer A flood of people rushed through the streets of East London, all with tired legs having just come out of Mile End tube station. There were people of different ages, races and religions all coming together to see one thing: All Points East. It s not often that festival organisers allow the headlining band to select the line-up, in fact it s probably a first. Nonetheless, World renowned rock band Bring Me The Horizon had been handed the reins, and had been able to choose who they wanted to play on the Friday. The British summertime festival seemed to be more popular than ever, as tens of thousands of people filled the open area of Victoria Park. It must have been the combination of rock, metal and hip-hop that brought such a variety of people to one place. There were four stages spanning the designated area. The Firestone Stage, a fairly small performing area with four small bands playing there throughout the day. The JÄGERHAUSE Stage, a small indoor stage with a very large, compact atmosphere. Both of these two smaller stages didn t seem to have any popular bands though, as there were never more than 500 people watching at one time. The second biggest stage was the North Stage, and it was definitely the most single genre stage on the day. It had a heavy metalcore/deathcore theme, with British metal band Architects headlining at 20:00. Other acts on this stage included While She Sleeps at 18:50, and Sleeping With Sirens at 17:30.

21 21 With all of this talent filling up the other stage, I was very intrigued to see how the East Stage (which was also the largest stage at the festival) would be able to top the North Stage, but they somehow managed to do it. Running from early afternoon to fairly late at night, this stage had a mix of hip-hop, pop, dance and rock: and the festival seemed to have got the best from each of these genres. With Bring Me The Horizon headlining, and many more playing - including rapper Scarlxd and dance/house band Alice Glass - I knew this was going to be a day filled with action and excitement. As I arrived at the North Stage, it was just coming up to 15:15, and British deathcore band Employed To Serve were just setting up to play. Although it was early afternoon on a Friday, there seemed to be a decent turnout, and the crowd only got bigger as Employed To Serve played. As there set came to an end, I felt a sudden wave of hunger in my stomach: it was time for lunch. Rows of shacks lined the edge of the park, all filled with overpriced fast-food ready to be sold. Chips, cheesy pizza, fried chicken, more chips, wraps, tacos, burgers and chips again! There was clearly a recurring theme of greasy festival food. Not only were there places to eat, but official merchandise stores as well. After six chicken wings and a new T-shirt, I headed over to the East Stage, where influential British band IDLES were about to perform. This was shortly followed by pop/rock band Nothing But Thieves, and then American hip-hop duo Run The Jewels. As RTJ came to the end of their final song the crowd parted, as a large group of people headed off to watch British metalcore band Architects play, and a new, even larger group of people came in to secure their spot for Bring Me The Horizon. We waited, and waited, and waited some more, and then the lights finally went down For the next two hours it was a show filled with fire, smoke and deafening music. BMTH started off strong with their hit song MANTRA, and only kept better as the day gave way to darkness. They also created a strong nostalgic feel in their concert, by playing songs that they hadn t played since The set was one of a kind, with Sam Carter from Architects rushing over from the North Stage to sing in The Sadness Will Never End, metal vocalist Dani Filth walking onstage with a shopping trolley during Wonderful Life, and Choir Noir adding backing vocals to It Never Ends. As the crowd sang along to the final lyrics of drown, there was definitely a hint of sadness in the air. With such enjoyment comes disappointment when it ends, and the reality that this moment wouldn t last forever hit me. My heart sank, but I wasn t about to let that feeling ruin these final moments, so I sang along with the other tens of thousands of people who were sharing this amazing experience. All Points East was a day to remember, and a night I will never forget. Well written and prepared. I enjoyed reading this and learning about the festival. 6+ N.B., If you are lost for ideas, or don t feel like you ve ever been anywhere that you d like to write about, look at this article for virtual travel experiences. Spend some time visiting the places virtually, and write about your experience in one virtual place. Writing Example J (article)

22 22 Or you could just write about some time that you spent in in your local area during lockdown. There is another piece written by a SGS student in Appendix 1 at the back if you need more inspiration. Week 4 (29 th June-3 rd July) Lessons Lesson 12 (Writing Example K Guidebook article) Now we are going to look at a different type of travel writing. In this form of travel writing, a more didactic (teacher-like/advisory tone) tone is used to give advice to the reader about the suitability of certain places to visit.

23 23

24 24 This page is taken from the Lonely Planet (a large travel guide book publisher) guide to the World, and about Sri Lanka. Please read the article and complete the questions. 1. How would you describe the tone of this article? 2. How is it laid out to interest the reader? 3. Who is its audience and how might you know that? 4. What types of sentence structures are used (e.g., declarative (statements), Interrogative (questions) Imperative (Usually start with a verb and tell the reader to do something, e.g., STAND UP!) 5. What would you most like to do in Sri Lanka, and why? Lesson 13 - Travel Blogs A blog is a discussion/information website published on the internet, consisting of often informal diary style entries, called posts. They are typically displayed in reverse chronological order so that the most recent post appears first. Nomadic Matt, or Matthew Kepnes, is an American travel blogger and author. His writing has been featured in the New York Times, National Geographic and the BBC, amongst other publications. Read these two blog posts. (Writing Examples L and M Travel Blogs) What do you notice about the writing style employed here? Fill in the table with examples from the blog posts. Feature of writing style Example from blog post Short paragraphs, often just made up of one sentence. Long sentences followed by short sentences for effect, e.g., How many of these qualities do those people exhibit? A lot. Informal style - use of I m, and I and Use of You synthetic personalisation, where the author assumes a personal relationship with the reader, as if they are friends and they are talking to them Links to his other posts Rhetorical questions Bold language

25 25 Lists Now, you are going to practice deconstructing a text. We did a little bit of this earlier in the year, when we analysed newspaper front covers and adverts. In order to do this, I need to remind you about author positioning (how the author presents themselves), reader positioning (how the author presents the reader), and subject positioning (how the writer presents the subjects of the writing, in this case, in this case, one of them is travel)! Have a go at answering these questions. 1. What do you think Matt s purpose is in writing these blogs? 2. A) How does Matt come across? B) How does this enable him to persuade you to keep reading? 3. How does Matt position the reader? 4. How does Matt present TRAVEL, the subject? 5. Can you make a list of features of advisory travel writing? Please read this article (Writing Example L) Lesson 14 - Sustainable travel 1. Now, please summarise it in 6 brief points. (Each point can have a few sentences) Now, please can you read this article (Writing Example M) 2. How do you respond to the ideas on this website? Please write a reflective piece of 3/4 paragraphs, which show you understand the advice in the piece, and what you think about it. Week 5 (6 th -10 th July) Lessons Lesson Entering a Travel Writing Competition

26 26 Wherever you go, go with all your heart. - Confucius My country is the world, and my religion is to do good. - Thomas Paine A nation's culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people. - Mahatma Gandhi For the next two lessons, I would like you to write a piece for a real travel writing competition, and enter your piece! The theme of this competition is My Country. And to enter, you need to decide on a country to focus on it can be the UK, or another country of your choice, and write about your chosen country! Here is the information from the Kids World Travel guide website about the competition, and some advice. Y8 students are classed in the Senior category, and their Essay length is words The essay may include the following topics: Important facts you should know about my country Unique facts about your country Why people should visit my country Ethnic groups, traditions and customs in my country Landmarks and world heritage sites in my country My country, my people, my culture My home country or where am I from? Exploring identity and home country topics Foreign school exchange visits and exchange programme reports Holiday experiences and insights of living in a foreign country The essay has to be submitted in English, but may include words or phrases in a foreign language. Writing Competition Prizes: Each of the category winners (8-11 years/12-15 years) will receive a book voucher of US $50. The runner-up in each category will win a travel book prize worth $25. The best essays in each category of the writing competition will be published on Kids-World- Travel-Guide.com and thus will be seen by thousands of visitors! Here are some questions to start with when reflecting on the essay topic 'My Country': What do you call your home country? Where is home? Is this your country of birth? Have you lived in another country? Have your parents been raised in this country? Which ethnic groups live in your country? Are there special customs and traditions? Do you know of cultural traditions that are different to the ones practised in your country or do you know about traditions that are the same in several countries? Which other countries have you visited? Have you made friends with people from other countries? What is similar and what is different in other countries? Which countries do you discuss at your school? Which countries do your news report about? Do you like to read news about your country - and about other countries? Do you enjoy learning about different countries? What fascinated you when you learn about foreign countries? What do you enjoy most when learning about a different country? What should people do, see and visit when they come to your country? Can you share some tips what everybody should know about your country before they come to visit and what they always should remember when visiting your country?

27 27 What do you like to do, see and visit when you are in a foreign country? Share some tips for exploring other countries with us. Which words or phrases relate strongly to your culture and your country? Are there popular sayings, proverbs or traditions you want to share with us? Country and identity - Are you living in a different country than your parents or family s home country? If you have moved to or lived in different countries, did you ever feel as an outsider? Do you have any tips what to do when you move to another country? Can you tell us about your experiences of being raised in a different country than the country your parents feel home to? Are you feeling you are between cultures and feel different to your parents, family or peers? Good luck with this! Try to use the features of travel writing and enter online when you have finished. I have included the winning entry for the Senior s category from last year in Appendix 2 at the back of this document. It is around 550 words. Take a look! WORLD LITERATURE Lesson 17 - World Literature Lessons So, after learning about travel writing and completing pieces of travel writing, we thought it would be good to read a collection of fiction texts about place and culture. You can travel vicariously through your reading of these 5 texts, and, as you will be beginning Y9 with a study of a modern novel set in a different culture, it also acts as a transition to the work in Y9. For each extract, the context will be explained to you, then there will be some close reading questions. We will start in Afghanistan, with an extract from Khalid Hosseini s The Kite Runner. Afghanistan Writing Example N (extract from a novel) Context The narrator of this extract, Amir, is an adult, who is remembering when he was a boy aged 12. His memory focuses on his childhood growing up in Kabul, the capital, and largest city, of Afghanistan. At the start of this extract, Amir talks about how much he loves winter time in Kabul. For him, a particular highlight of winter is the local kite-fighting tournament, and he describes how he and his closest friend (who is also the son of his house help) are making a fighter kite that they will use to enter the competition. Fighter kites are kites used for the sport of kite fighting. Traditionally most are small, single-line flat kites where line tension alone is used for control, and competitors try to cut the line of their rivals kites, sometimes using sharp, sometimes glass coated, lines. 1. Hosseini uses lots of writing techniques that we can study and learn from. As you read through the extract, can you spot any of the following techniques, and add them as examples to the table? 2. Then, please note down your ideas about the effects of 5 chosen techniques.

28 28 Writing technique Example Ideas about possible effects Narrative hooks (a reference that isn t explained, that creates a mystery for the reader) At least those whose fathers could afford to buy a good iron stove. Interesting because it shows not tells, that Amir is of a rich background and alludes to the poverty of other, less privilege families. References to local colour (reference to aspects of the specific place, that is recognisable to people familiar with that place, e.g., bikes in Amsterdam) Use of colons to add information Lists Use of the present participle verb (ING verbs) e.g., fighting Anaphora (repetition of the phrases at the start of each line) Repetition Personification Metaphor Simile Turnip qurma (we know it as Korma) or e.g., Cinema Park Makes the story more realistic and vivid. 2. How does the narrator feel about winter time in Kabul? (3 points with quotations) 3. How does the narrator feel about kite fighting? One ZCR paragraph with reference to some of the the language features that you added to your list earlier. The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini Wintertime in Kabul Winter was every kid's favourite season in Kabul, at least those whose fathers could afford to buy a good iron stove. The reason was simple: They shut down school for the icy season. Winter to me was the end of long division and naming the capital of Bulgaria, and the start of three months of playing cards by the stove with Hassan, free Russian movies on Tuesday mornings at Cinema Park, sweet turnip qurma over rice for lunch after a morning of building snowmen. And kites, of course. Flying kites. And running them [ ] I loved wintertime in Kabul. I loved it for the soft pattering of snow against my window at night, for the way fresh snow crunched under my black rubber boots, for the warmth of the cast iron stove as the wind screeched through the yards, the streets. [ ] EVERY WINTER, districts in Kabul held a kite-fighting tournament. And if you were a boy living in Kabul, the day of the tournament was undeniably the highlight of the cold season. I never slept the night before the tournament. I'd roll from side to side, make shadow animals on the wall, even sit on the balcony in the dark, a blanket wrapped around me. I felt like a soldier trying to sleep in the trenches the night before a major battle. And that wasn't so far off. In Kabul, fighting kites was a

29 29 little like going to war. As with any war, you had to ready yourself for battle. For a while, Hassan and I used to build our own kites. We saved our weekly allowances in the fall, dropped the money in a little porcelain horse Baba had brought one time from Herat. When the winds of winter began to blow and snow fell in chunks, we undid the snap under the horse's belly. We went to the bazaar and bought bamboo, glue, string, and paper. We spent hours every day shaving bamboo for the centre and cross spars, cutting the thin tissue paper which made for easy dipping and recovery. And then, of course, we had to make our own string, or tar. If the kite was the gun, then tar, the glass-coated cutting line, was the bullet in the chamber. We'd go out in the yard and feed up to five hundred feet of string through a mixture of ground glass and glue. We'd then hang the line between the trees, leave it to dry. The next day, we'd wind the battle-ready line around a wooden spool. By the time the snow melted and the rains of spring swept in, every boy in Kabul bore tell-tale horizontal gashes on his fingers from a whole winter of fighting kites. I remember how my classmates and I used to huddle, compare our battle scars on the first day of school. The cuts stung and didn't heal for a couple of weeks, but I didn't mind. They were reminders of a beloved season that had once again passed too quickly. Then the class captain would blow his whistle and we'd march in a single file to our classrooms, longing for winter already, greeted instead by the spectre of yet another long school year. Definitions Herat - Herāt is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. The fall the American term for the season of autumn Bazaar - A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. Spars - In most traditional fighter kite manufacture, the skins of kites are made from a lightweight thin paper and the spars are usually made from a lightweight and flexible wood, usually bamboo. INDIA - Lesson 18 Writing Example O (extract from a novel) This extract is taken from The God of Small Things, by Arundhati Roy and the events describe take place just before the monsoon arrives in a district in Kerala, South India. During the winter monsoon, a persistent and large high pressure zone over Asia drives cool, dry air southward toward the tropics. This provides the monsoon region with its dry season. Then, during May and June of each year, the summer monsoon arrives, with persistent southerly wind flow driven by a warm air

30 30 mass with low pressure at the surface that forms over southern Asia, it is warmed by the sun northward moving the low pressure over land, bringing with it torrential rains. Paradise Pickles & Preserves May in Ayemenem is a hot, brooding month. The days are long and humid. The river shrinks and black crows gorge on bright mangoes in still, dustgreen trees. Red bananas ripen. Jackfruits burst. Dissolute bluebottles hum vacuously in the fruity air. Then they stun themselves against clear windowpanes and die, fatly baffled in the sun. The nights are clear, but suffused with sloth and sullen expectation. But by early June the southwest monsoon breaks and there are three months of wind and water with short spells of sharp, glittering sunshine that thrilled children snatch to play with. The countryside turns an immodest green. Boundaries blur as tapioca fences take root and bloom. Brick walls turn mossgreen. Pepper vines snake up electric poles. Wild creepers burst through laterite banks and spill across the flooded roads. Boats play in the bazaars. And small fish appear in the puddles that fill the PWD potholes on the highways. It was raining when Rahel came back to Ayemenem. Slanting silver ropes slammed into loose earth, ploughing it up like gunfire. The old house on the hill wore its steep, gabled roof pulled over its ears like a low hat. The walls, streaked with moss, had grown soft, and bulged a little with dampness that seeped up from the ground. The wild, overgrown garden was full of the whisper and scurry of small lives. In the undergrowth a rat snake rubbed itself against a glistening stone. Hopeful yellow bullfrogs cruised the scummy pond for mates. A drenched mongoose flashed across the leaf-strewn driveway. The house itself looked empty. The doors and windows were locked. The front verandah bare. Unfurnished. But the skyblue Plymouth with chrome tailfins was still parked outside, and inside, Baby Kochamma was still alive. She was Rahel's baby grandaunt, her grandfather's younger sister. Her name was really Navomi, Navomi Ipe, but everybody called her Baby. She became Baby Kochamma when she was old enough to be an aunt. Rahel hadn't come to see her, though. Neither niece nor baby grandaunt labored under any illusions on that account. Rahel had come to see her brother, Estha. They were two-egg twins. "Dizygotic" doctors called them. Born from separate but simultaneously fertilized eggs. Estha-- Esthappen--was the older by eighteen minutes. They never did look much like each other, Estha and Rahel, and even when they were thin-armed children, flat-chested, worm ridden and Elvis Presley-puffed, there was none of the usual "Who is who?" and "Which is which?" from oversmiling relatives or the Syrian Orthodox bishops who frequently visited the Ayemenem House for donations. PWD- the Public works dept. Mongoose- small mammal Plymouth type of car Tapioca- made from roots of cassava. Used in milk puddings Starting analysis Arundhati Roy uses lots of writing techniques that we can study and learn from. As you read through the extract, can you spot any of the following techniques, and add them as examples to the table? Then, please note down your ideas about the effects of 5 chosen techniques.

31 31 Writing technique Example Ideas about possible effects Powerful verbs to convey mood. References to local colour (reference to aspects of the specific place, that is recognisable to people familiar with that place, e.g., bikes in Amsterdam) Personification Lists Use of the present participle verb (ING verbs) e.g., fighting Anaphora (repetition of the phrases at the start of each line) Repetition One line paragraph Metaphor Reference to jack fruit Makes the story more realistic and vivid. Questions for further study 1. Look closely at paragraph I of this extract. It is a series of short sentences culminating in the picture of dead blue bottles. The writer uses the image of the blue bottles to convey the sense of heat and weariness. a) Explain why he calls them Dissolute and their sound vacuously b) What is the impact of the detailed focus on the flies in paragraph 1? 2. Rahel is one of the twins and the partial narrator of the story. What impression do you get of the family? (3 points with quotations). 3. Look again at the final paragraph which is one long sentence. How would you describe its tone? 4. In this last paragraph, there are narrative hooks which will be developed later. They never did look much like each other....as none of the usual "Who is who?"?" from oversmiling relatives.. Syrian Orthodox bishops who frequently visited the Ayemenem House for donations. Take one of these hooks and outline in 5 bullet points a brief plot that could be developed from one of the above

32 32 Week 6 (13 th -17 th July) Lessons Lesson 19 JAPAN Writing Example P (Extract from a novel) Chapter 5 In this extract, which comes from a fantasy novel by Japanese author Haruki Murikami, Kafka Tamura, a 15 year old boy who has run away from his father s house to find his mother and sister, travels by coach to Takamatsu, a city located on the island of Shikoku in Japan, where, after a series of adventures, he finds shelter in a quiet private library. Before coming to Takamatsu I found out some wealthy man from an old family in the suburbs had renovated his personal library into a private library open to the public. The place has a lot of rare books, and I heard that the building itself and the surrounding garden were worth checking out. I saw a photo of the place once in Taiyo magazine. It's a large, Japanese-style house with this really elegant reading room that looks more like a parlour, where people are sitting with their books on comfortable-looking sofas. For some reason that photo really stayed with me, and I wanted to see this in person if someday the chance came along. The Komura Memorial Library, the place was called. I go over to the tourist information booth at the station and ask how to get there. A pleasant middle-aged lady marks the spot on a tourist map and gives me instructions on which train to take. It's about a twenty-minute ride, she explains. I thank her and study the schedule posted inside the station. Trains run about every twenty minutes. I have some time, so I pick up a takeout lunch at one of the little shops. The train is just two little cars coupled together. The tracks cut through a high-rise shopping district, then past a mix of small shops and houses, factories and warehouses. Next comes a park and an apartment building under construction. I press my face against the window, drinking in the unfamiliar sights. I've hardly ever been outside of Tokyo, and everything looks fresh and new.

33 33 The train I'm on, going out of town, is nearly empty this time of the morning, but the platforms on the other side are packed with junior and senior high school kids in summer uniforms, schoolbags slung across their shoulders. All heading to school. Not me, though. I'm alone, going in the opposite direction. We're on different tracks in more ways than one. All of a sudden the air feels thin and something heavy is bearing down on my chest. Am I really doing the right thing? The thought makes me feel helpless, isolated. I turn my back on the schoolkids and try not to look at them anymore. The train runs along the sea for a time, then cuts inland. We pass tall fields of corn, grapevines, tangerine trees growing on terraced hills. An occasional irrigation pond sparkles in the sunlight. A river winding through a flat stretch of land looks cool and inviting, an empty lot is overgrown with summer grasses. At one point we pass a dog standing by the tracks, staring vacantly at the train rushing by. Watching this scenery makes me feel warm and calm all over again. You're going to be okay, I tell myself, taking a deep breath. All you can do is forge on ahead. At the station I follow the map and walk north past rows of old stores and houses. Both sides of the street are lined with walls around people's homes. I've never seen so many different kinds--black walls made out of boards, white walls, granite block walls, stone walls with hedges on top. The whole place is still and silent, with no one else on the street. Hardly any cars pass by. The air smells like the sea, which must be nearby. I listen carefully but can't hear any waves. Far off, though, I hear the faint bee-like buzz of an electric saw, maybe from a construction site. Small signs with arrows pointing toward the library line the road from the station, so I can't get lost. Right in front of the Komura Memorial Library's imposing front gate stand two neatly trimmed plum trees. Inside the gate a gravel path winds past other beautifully manicured bushes and trees--pines and magnolias, kerria and azaleas-- with not a fallen leaf in sight. A couple of stone lanterns peek out between the trees, as does a small pond. Finally I get to the intricately designed entrance. I come to a halt in front of the open front door, hesitating for a moment about going inside. This place doesn't look like any library I've ever seen. But having come all this way I might as well take the plunge. Just inside the entrance a young man is sitting behind a counter where you check your bags. I slough off my backpack, then take off my sunglasses and cap. 1. Please can you complete the table underneath. Writing technique Example Ideas about possible effects Narrative hooks (a reference that isn t explained, that creates a mystery for the reader) References to local colour (reference to aspects of the specific place, that is recognisable to people familiar with that place, e.g., bikes in Amsterdam) Internal dialogue Lists Use of the present participle verb (ING verbs) e.g., fighting Rhetorical question Personification

34 34 Metaphor/ simile Further study questions 1 In the opening of the extract in paragraph 1, the narrator presents himself as calm and methodical. Find the evidence to support this. 2. The sight of school children waiting for a train to go to school makes the narrator state, Not me, though. I'm alone, going in the opposite direction. We're on different tracks in more ways than one. Explain what he means in this section 3. The way a writer chooses words and orders them is very important. Look again at the sentence formation of above and then compare with this formation: Not me. Though alone, I m going in the opposite direction. We're on different tracks. 4. How is the narrator s character and situation altered in the second version? 5. At the end of the extract, he states that he, slough off my backpack, then take off my sunglasses and cap. What 3 explanations are there for this action? 6. Lesson 20 CHINA Writing Example Q (extract from a novel) Three-Inch Golden Lilies - Concubine to a Warlord General ( ) At the age of fifteen my grandmother became the concubine of a warlord general, the police chief of a tenuous national government of China. The year was 1924 and China was in chaos. Much of it, including Manchuria, where my grandmother lived, was ruled by warlords. The liaison was arranged by her father, a police official in the provincial town of Yixian in southwest Manchuria, about a hundred miles north of the Great Wall and 250 miles northeast of Peking. Like most towns in China, Yixian was built like a fortress. It was encircled by walls thirty feet high and twelve feet thick dating from the Tang dynasty (AD ), surmounted by battlements, dotted with sixteen forts at regular intervals, and wide enough to ride a horse quite easily along the top. There were four gates into the city, one at each point of the compass, with outer protecting gates, and the fortifications were surrounded by a deep moat. The town s most conspicuous feature was a tall, richly decorated bell tower of dark, brown stone, which had originally been built in the sixth century when Buddhism had been introduced to the area. Every night the bell was rung to signal the time, and the tower also functioned as a fire and flood alarm. Yixian was a prosperous market town. The plains around produced cotton, maize, sorghum, soybeans, sesame, pears, apples, and grapes. In the grassland areas and in the hills to the west, farmers grazed sheep and cattle.

35 35 My great-grandfather, Yang Ru-shan, was born in 1894, when the whole of China was ruled by an emperor who resided in Peking. The imperial family were Manchus who had conquered China in 1644 from Manchuria, which was their base. The Yangs were Han, ethnic Chinese, and had ventured north of the Great Wall in search of opportunity. My grandfather was the only son, which made him of supreme importance to his family. Only a son could perpetuate the family name without him, the family line would stop, which, to the Chinese, amounted to the greatest possible betrayal of his ancestors. He was sent to a good school. The goal was for him to pass the examinations to become a mandarin, an official, which was the aspiration of most Chinese males at the time. Being an official brought power, and power brought money. Without power or money, no Chinese could feel safe from the depredations of officialdom or random violence. There had never been a proper legal system. Justice was arbitrary, and cruelty was both institutionalised and capricious. An official with power was the law. Becoming a mandarin was the only way the child of a non-noble family could escape the cycle of injustice and fear. Yang s father had decided that his son should not follow him into the family business of felt-making, and sacrificed himself and his family business for his son s education. The woman took in sewing for local tailors and dressmakers, toiling late into the night. To save money, they turned their oil lamps down to the absolute minimum, causing lasting damage to their eyes. The joints in their fingers became swollen from the long hours. Following the custom, my great-grandfather was married young, at fourteen, to a woman six years his senior. It was considered one of the duties of a wife to help bring up her husband. The story of his wife, my great grandmother, was typical of millions of Chinese women of her time. She came from a family of tanners called Wu. Because her family was not an intellectual one and did not hold any official post, and because she was a girl, she was not given a name at all. Being the second daughter, she was simply called Number Two Girl (Er- Ya-tou). Her father died when she was an infant, and she was brought up by an uncle. One day, when she was six years old, the uncle was dining with a friend whose wife was pregnant. Over dinner the two men agreed that if the baby was a boy he would be married to the six year old niece. The two young people never met before their wedding. In fact, falling in love was considered almost shameful, a family disgrace. Not because it was taboo there was, after all, a venerable tradition of romantic love in China but because young people were not supposed to be exposed to situations where such a thing could happen, partly because it was immoral for them to meet, and partly because marriage was seen

36 36 above all as a duty, an arrangement between two families. With luck, one could fall in love after getting married. Please read these interesting articles on Chinese attitude to marriage to help you to understand the context of the passage. Questions 1- Why was Yixian was considered a prosperous market town? 2- Yixian was clearly a place that could withhold attacks. List the elements which would make it easy to rebuff an attack. 3- Yang s grandfather s family made sacrifices to give him the best opportunity for his future. List what they did and explain the motivation for such hardships. 4- This is clearly a patriarchal society. Look closely at the life story of his great grandmother. Why was it necessary that she married his great grandmother? Arranged marriages are still prevalent in some countries and faiths today and romantic love has been idolised by many texts. Probably the most well-known is Romeo and Juliet. Have a look at this article too Greece. Lesson 21 Writing Example R (extract from a novel) Background information It is believed that the island of Mykonos was named after its first ruler Mykons, a local hero, who was considered to be the son or grandson of the god Apollo. There are various references to Mykonos in the Greek mythology. Mykonos was supposedly where the battle between omnipotent Zeus and the fearful Titans took place. In this extract Saeed and Nadia have left a city gripped by war. Exit West by Mohsin Hamid..then he strode forward and they made their way outside and found themselves between two low buildings, perceiving a sound like a shell held to their ears and feeling a cold breeze on their faces and smelling brine in the air and they looked and saw a stretch of sand and low grey waves

37 37 coming in and it seemed miraculous, although it was not a miracle, they were merely on a beach. The beach was fronted by a beach club, with bars and tables and large outdoor loudspeakers and loungers stacked away for winter. Its signs were written in English but also in other European tongues. It seems deserted, and Saeed and Nadia went and stood by the sea, the water stopping just short of their feet and sinking into the sand, leaving lines in the smoothness like those of expired soap bubbles blown by a parent for a child. After a while, a pale-skinned man with light brown hair came out and told them to move along, making shoeing gestures with his hands, but without any hostility or particular rudeness, more as though he was conversing in an international pidgin dialect of sign language. They walked away from the beach club and in the lee of a hill they saw what looked like a refugee camp, with hundreds of tents and lean-tos, and people of many colours and hues many colours and hues but mostly falling within a band of brown that ranged from dark chocolate to milky tea and these people were gathered around fires that burned inside upright oil drums and speaking in a cacophony that was the languages of the world, what one might hear if one were a communications satellite, or a spymaster tapping into a fibre-optic cable under the sea. In this group, everyone was foreign, and so, nobody was. Nadia and Saeed quickly located a cluster of fellow countrywomen and men and learned that they were on the Greek island of Mykonos, a great draw for tourists in the summer, and it seemed, a great draw for migrants in this winter. Pidgin; a simplified form of a language, especially as used by a non-native speaker. Cacophony; discordant mixture of sounds. Starting analysis Mohsin Hamid use writing techniques that we can study and learn from. As you read through the extract, can you spot any of the following techniques, and add them as examples to the table? Then, please note down your ideas about the effects of 5 chosen techniques. Writing technique Example Ideas about possible effects Narrative hooks (a reference that isn t explained, that creates a mystery for the reader) References to local colour (reference to aspects of the specific place, that is recognisable to people familiar with that place, e.g., bikes in Amsterdam)

38 38 Lists Use of the present participle verb (ING verbs) e.g., fighting Personification Metaphor/ simile Further study 1. When did Saeed and Nadia arrive in Mykonos? Explain why this was the best time for them to travel. 2. Put into your own words what has just happened before this in and it seemed miraculous, although it was not a miracle, they were merely on a beach. 3. Explain why Saeed and Nadia went and stood by the sea in paragraph Saeed and Nadia are illegal immigrants. Why do you think the bar tender simply gesticulate for them to move but without any hostility or particular rudeness. 5. Explain this phrase everyone was foreign, and so, nobody was. 6. Look at this article: How has reading this helped you to understand the extract? Be specific. (4 points) Appendix 1 The best places to go in Camden Market As you walk out of the tube station, you see the first section of Camden Market, established in 1974, resting on the river, in the heart of London. Shops line the bustling streets as cars slowly roll past and occasionally honk at an unaware pedestrian crossing the road. The Street Market

39 39 First, the Buck street market. First opened only a few months ago, it is the newest addition to Camden Market. Mainly clothes and accessories sold from baby sizes to adult. Shouts of offers and discounts emerge out of shop entrances as the river comes into view. If you only want to add a pop of colour and culture to your wardrobe, head to this open air market packed with designs and colours. The Inverness street market is small, but it shines. Football merchandise, satirical shirts and pictures reminding people of the past fill the small gazebos neatly organised in a square. Being the oldest district in the market, the shop line-up has changed as business owners either retired or went bankrupt and youngsters decided to take up something new. The designs provide a few laughs and come at an affordable price. Food Then, the real fun starts. A set of 30 food stalls packed tightly together with narrow alleys snaking through the small gaps in between. From meaty to vegan, Argentinian to Indian, you will almost definitely find something to satisfy your palette. My personal favourite, Other side fried, serves crispy French fries and fried buttermilk chicken with nacho cheese sauce and crushed Doritos on a plate. A meal with flavours for a King, but the mess of a beggar, it s

40 40 a perfect lunch for weary feet after a few hours of exploring little roads and shops. The market by the river After finishing your lunch, you wander under some shade and find yourself in the old stables. Previously used to shelter horses transporting carts of people or industrial parts, the Camden Market stables have been around for almost 20 years and since then, over 80 shops have been established, selling all sorts of knick knacks and clothes from fake designer to posters of movie stars striking a pose. It can be easy to just quickly pass through but it is worth it to just take some time and really enjoy the full thing and be involved as much as possible. The occasional raised voice of a bargainer just adds to the experience. Just underneath, 80s classics sound throughout the retro shops. Sports jerseys, Harrington jackets and old company designs line that racks as people mill around, infrequently catching a second glance at a shirt.

41 41 Even if you re just looking to add to your vinyl collection, Camden market is the perfect place to do exactly that. Only one of the places, Disc Disciples, opened and still run by Danny Haywood. Next is Cyberdog. A collection of flashing disco lights and speakers blaring into your ears. Racks are filled with brand name shirts and trousers as altered mannequins wear neon hi-vis merchandise are dotted around the store. In my eyes, the shop is quite strange but as it s been open a while, it must be the right angle for some. Then as you leave, the sound of techno bass becoming more and more distant, you see the London Sun setting on the skyline and decide it s time to go home. AO5-6 AO6-5 Comment - You ve worked really hard on this. It s detailed and the tone is right. Level 6-. Appendix 2

42 42 For The Love Of Linguae Essay Writing Competition 2019 Category: years - Winner - Winning essay in this category is "For the Love of Linguae" written by Tristan Kuhn. Tristan lives in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa and is home educated. In his award-winning essay 'For the Love of Linguae' Tristan tells us about the importance of learning languages and his own language learning experiences and shares an inspiring message with us. For the Love of Linguae South Africa is a rainbow nation. A rainbow nation has many different kinds of languages and people.

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