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1 13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages ) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature is related to the kinetic energy of the particles of a substance. Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases (pages ) 1. The energy an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy. 2. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the assumptions of the kinetic theory concerning gases. a. A gas is composed of particles with insignificant volume that are relatively far apart from each other. b. Strong attractive forces exist between particles of a gas. c. Gases tend to collect near the bottom of a container. d. The paths of uninterrupted travel of particles in a gas are relatively short because the particles are constantly colliding with each other or with other objects. 3. Is the following statement true or false? According to the kinetic theory, collisions between particles in a gas are perfectly elastic because kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another, and the total kinetic energy remains constant. true Gas Pressure (pages ) 4. Gas pressure results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object. 5. Simultaneous collisions of billions of particles in a gas with an object result in gas pressure. 6. What force holds the particles of air in Earth s atmosphere? gravity 7. What kind of pressure is measured with a barometer? atmospheric pressure Chapter 13 States of Matter 137

2 CHAPTER 13, States of Matter (continued) 8. Look at Figure 13.2 on page 386. What accounts for the difference in height of the two mercury columns shown in the figure? The mercury column on the left is shown at sea level; the one on the right is shown at an altitude of 9000 m. Because atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases, the column on the right is lower than the one on the left. 9. Circle the letter next to every name of a unit of pressure. a. mm Hg d. kpa b. standard e. atm c. pascal f. degree 10. Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are defined as a temperature of 0 C and a pressure of kpa or 1 atm Kinetic Energy and Temperature (pages ) 11. What happens to the temperature of a substance when the average kinetic energy of its particles increases? The temperature of the substance increases. 12. Is the following statement true or false. All the particles in a substance at a given temperature have the same kinetic energy. false 13. The temperature 0K, or C, is called kinetic energy zero. Theoretically, particles of matter at this temperature would have no. kinetic energy/motion 14. On the graph below, write the labels lower temperature and higher temperature to identify the curve that depicts the kinetic energy distribution of particles in a liquid at a lower temperature and at a higher temperature. Percent of molecules lower temperature higher temperature Kinetic energy 138 Guided Reading and Study Workbook

3 15. Circle the letter of the temperature scale that correctly completes this sentence. Temperature on the scale is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance. a. Celsius b. Kelvin c. Fahrenheit d. Centigrade SECTION 13.2 THE NATURE OF LIQUIDS (pages ) This section describes a model for liquids in terms of kinetic energy and the attractive forces between the particles in a liquid. It also uses kinetic theory to distinguish evaporation from boiling. A Model for Liquids (page 390) 1. Is the following sentence true or false? The kinetic theory states that there are no attractions between the particles of a liquid. false 2. Circle the letter next to each sentence that is true about the particles of a liquid. a. Most of the particles in a liquid have enough kinetic energy to escape into a gaseous state. b. Liquids are much denser than gases because intermolecular forces reduce the amount of space between the particles in a liquid. c. Increasing pressure on a liquid has hardly any effect on its volume. d. Liquid particles are free to slide past one another. Evaporation (page 391) 3. The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor is called vaporization. 4. When vaporization occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling, the process is called evaporation. 5. As a liquid evaporates, why do only some of the particles break away from the surface of the liquid? Why does the liquid evaporate faster if the temperature is increased? Most of the molecules do not have enough kinetic energy to overcome the attractive forces. As the temperature is increased, the average kinetic energy increases and more particles have enough kinetic energy to overcome the forces keeping them in the liquid state. Chapter 13 States of Matter 139

4 CHAPTER 13, States of Matter (continued) 6. Is the following sentence true or false? Evaporation is a cooling process because the particles in a liquid with the highest kinetic energy tend to escape first, leaving the remaining particles with a lower average kinetic energy and, thus, a lower temperature. true Questions 7, 8, 9, and 10 refer to either container A or container B below. Think of each container as a system involving both liquid water and water vapor. (a) (b) 7. From which of the containers are water molecules able to escape? b 8. In which container can a dynamic equilibrium between water molecules in the liquid state and water molecules in the vapor state be established? a 9. In which container will the water level remain constant? a 10. From which container is it possible for all of the liquid water to disappear through evaporation? b 11. What causes the chill you may feel after stepping out of a swimming pool on a warm, windy day? Wind causes water on the skin to evaporate, which is a cooling process. 140 Guided Reading and Study Workbook

5 Vapor Pressure (pages ) 12. Circle the letter next to each sentence that is true about vapor pressure. a. Vapor pressure arises when particles of a liquid in a closed, partly filled container vaporize and collide with the walls of the container. b. After a time in a closed, partly filled container, a liquid will evaporate and its vapor will condense at equal rates. c. Look at Figure 13.6b on page 391. Condensation on the inside of the terrarium indicates that there is not a liquid-vapor equilibrium in the sealed terrarium. d. When the temperature of a contained liquid increases, its vapor pressure increases. 13. Look at Figure 13.7 on page 393. How does the vapor pressure of the ethanol in the manometer change when the temperature is increased from 0 C to 20 C? Circle the letter of the correct answer. a. The vapor pressure decreases by more than 4 kpa. b. The vapor pressure remains constant. c. The vapor pressure increases by more than 4 kpa. d. There is no way to detect a change in vapor pressure with a manometer. Boiling Point (pages ) 14. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure. 15. Look at Figure 13.8 on page 394. Why does the boiling point decrease as altitude increases? At higher altitudes, atmospheric pressure is lower than it is at sea level. Because boiling occurs when vapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, a liquid boils at a lower temperature. 16. Use Figure 13.9 on page 394. At approximately what temperature would ethanol boil atop Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is 34 kpa? Circle the letter next to the best estimate. a. 50 C b. 100 C c. 0 C d. 85 C 17. Is the following sentence true or false? After a liquid reaches its boiling point, its temperature continues to rise until all the liquid vaporizes. false Chapter 13 States of Matter 141

6 CHAPTER 13, States of Matter (continued) Reading Skill Practice Writing a summary can help you remember what you have read. When you write a summary, include only the most important points. Write a summary of the discussion of boiling point on pages Do your work on a separate sheet of paper. Students summaries should include a definition of boiling point and normal boiling point. They should also include the effects of pressure on the temperature of a boiling liquid. SECTION 13.3 THE NATURE OF SOLIDS (pages ) This section describes the highly organized structures of solids, distinguishes between a crystal lattice and a unit cell, and explains how allotropes of an element differ. A Model for Solids (page 396) 1. Is the following sentence true or false? Although particles in solids have kinetic energy, the motion of particles in solids is restricted to vibrations about fixed points. true 2. A solid melts when. the organization of its particles breaks down 3. Is the following sentence true or false? The temperature at which the liquid and solid states of a substance are in equilibrium is the same as the melting point and the freezing point of the substance. true Crystal Structure and Unit Cells (pages ) 4. How are particles arranged in a crystal? They are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional pattern. 5. What type of solid has a relatively low melting point? A molecular solid has a relatively low melting point. 6. Do all solids melt when heated? Explain. No; some solids, such as wood, decompose. 7. Circle the letter next to each sentence that is true about solids. a. Most solid substances are not crystalline. b. All crystals have sides, or faces, that intersect at angles that are characteristic for a given substance. c. There are seven groups, or crystal systems, into which all crystals may be classified. d. The orderly array of sodium ions and chloride ions gives crystals of table salt their regular shape. 142 Guided Reading and Study Workbook

7 Identify the unit cell in each figure below as simple cubic, body-centered cubic, or face-centered cubic. 8. face-centered cubic 9. body-centered cubic 10. simple cubic 11. Is the following sentence true or false? Some solid substances can exist in more than one form. Give an example to support your answer. True. The element carbon has at least three solid forms: graphite, diamond, and buckminsterfullerene. 12. Two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state are called allotropes. 13. What is an amorphous solid? An amorphous solid lacks an ordered internal structure. 14. Circle the letter next to each solid that is an amorphous solid. a. table salt c. plastic b. rubber d. glass 15. How are glasses different from crystalline solids? The internal structures of glasses are intermediate between free-flowing liquids and crystalline solids. Glasses do not have a definite melting point, but soften when heated. Glass breaks into irregular, jagged pieces when shattered. SECTION 13.4 CHANGES OF STATE (pages ) This section describes the process of sublimation. It also explains phase changes between solid, liquid, and vapor states and how to interpret a phase diagram. Sublimation (page 401) 1. The process by which wet laundry dries on an outdoor clothesline in winter is called sublimation. 2. Is the following sentence true or false? Solids have vapor pressure because some particles near the surface of a solid substance have enough kinetic energy to escape directly into the vapor phase. true Chapter 13 States of Matter 143

8 CHAPTER 13, States of Matter (continued) Phase Diagrams (pages ) 3. What does a phase diagram show? A phase diagram shows the temperature and pressure conditions at which a substance exists in the solid, liquid, and vapor phases. 4. What is the triple point of a substance? The triple point represents the only conditions of temperature and pressure at which three phases of a substance can exist in equilibrium. 5. In the phase diagram for water shown below, label the melting point and boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure, and the triple point. Normal boiling point Normal melting point Pressure (kpa) Solid Liquid Vapor Triple point Temperature ( C) 6. Use the phase diagram above to answer the following question. Why is a laboratory required to produce the conditions necessary for observing water at the triple point? From the diagram, the triple point of water is at a pressure of 0.61 kpa, far below atmospheric pressure. Laboratory equipment is necessary to achieve pressures this low. 144 Guided Reading and Study Workbook

9 GUIDED PRACTICE PROBLEM GUIDED PRACTICE PROBLEM 2 (page 387) 2. The pressure at the top of Mount Everest is 33.7 kpa. Is that pressure greater than or less than 0.25 atm? Analyze Step 1. To convert kpa to atm, what conversion factor do you need to use? 1 atm kpa Step 2. Why can you use an estimate to solve this problem? Because greater than or less than questions don t require an exact answer. An estimate will probably be sufficient to produce the correct answer. Calculate Step 3. Write the expression needed to find the answer. 1 atm kpa atm kpa Step 4. Which common fraction is this number close to? atm is close to atm or atm Step 5. What is this fraction written as a decimal? Is this number greater than or less than 0.25? Evaluate is greater than Step 6. Are you confident your estimate gave a correct answer to this problem? Because the estimate is more than 30% greater than 0.25, you can be confident that the difference isn t due to rounding. EXTRA PRACTICE (similar to Practice Problem 1, page 387) 1. What pressure, in atmospheres, does a gas exert at 152 mm Hg? 1 atm 152 mm Hg atm 760 mm Hg What is this pressure in kilopascals? kpa atm 20.3 kpa 1 atm Chapter 13 States of Matter 145

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