Materials Onion (allium) Root Tip Digital Slide Images - PDF Free Download

Materials Onion (allium) Root Tip Digital Slide Images

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Materials Onion (allium) Root Tip Digital Slide Images"

Transcription

1 1 Experiment 1: Observation of Mitosis in a Plant Cell In this experiment, we will look at the different stage of mitosis in an onion cell. Remember that mitosis only occupies one to two hours while interphase can take anywhere from hours. Using this information and the data from your experiment, you can estimate the percentage of cells in each stage of the cell cycle. Materials Onion (allium) Root Tip Digital Slide Images Procedure: Part 1: Calculating Time Spent in Each Cell Cycle Phase 1. The length of the cell cycle in the onion root tip is about 24 hours. Predict how many hours of the 24 hour cell cycle you think each step takes. Record your predictions, along with supporting evidence, in Table Examine the onion root tip slide images on the following pages. There are four images, each displaying a different field of view. Pick one of the images, and count the number of cells in each stage. Then count the total number of cells in the image. Record the image you selected and your counts in Table Calculate the time spent by a cell in each stage based on the 24 hour cycle: Hours of Stage = 24 x Number of Cells in Stage Total Number of Cells Counted Part 2: Identifying Stages of the Cell Cycle 1. Observe the images of the root cap tip. 2. Locate a good example of a cell in each of the following stages (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) so that you are able to identify the stages in images.

2 2 Figure 1 Onion Root Tip: 100X Figure 2 Onion Root Tip: 100X

3 3 Figure 3 Onion Root Tip: 100X Figure 4 Onion Root Tip: 100X

4 4 Table 1: Mitosis Predictions Predictions: Supporting Evidence: Table 2: Mitosis Data Number of Cells in Each Stage Interphase: Prophase: Metaphase: Anaphase: Telophase: Cytokinesis: Total Number of Cells Calculated % of Time Spent in Each Stage Interphase: Prophase: Metaphase: Anaphase: Telophase: Cytokinesis:

5 5 Post-Lab Questions 1. Indicate below the stages of the cell cycle the arrows are pointing to in the slide image. 2. In what stage were most of the onion root tip cells? Based on what you know about cell cycle division, what does this imply about the life span of a cell? 3. Were there any stages of the cell cycle that you did not observe? How can you explain this using evidence from the cell cycle?

6 6 4. As a cell grows, what happens to its surface area to volume ratio? (Hint: Think of a balloon being blown up). How does this ratio change with respect to cell division? 5. What is the function of mitosis in a cell that is about to divide? 6. What would happen if mitosis were uncontrolled? 7. How accurate were your time predication for each stage of the cell cycle? 8. Discuss one observation that you found interesting while looking at the onion root tip cells. Experiment 2: Tracking Chromosomal DNA Movement through Mitosis Although mitosis and meiosis share similarities, they are different processes and create very different results. In this experiment, you will follow the movement of the chromosomes through mitosis to create somatic daughter cells. Materials 2 Sets of Different Colored Pop-it Beads (32 of each - these may be any color)

7 7 (8) 5-Holed Pop-it Beads (used as centromeres) Procedure Genetic content is replicated during interphase. DNA exists as loose molecular strands called chromatin; it has not condensed to form chromosomes yet. Sister chromatids begin coiling into chromosomes during prophase. Begin your experiment here: 1. Build a pair of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 beads should be used to create each individual sister chromatid (20 beads per chromosome pair). Two five-holed beads represent each centromere. To do this... a. Start with 20 beads of one color to create your first sister chromatid pair. Five beads must be snapped together for each of the four different strands. Two strands create the first chromatid, and two strands create the second chromatid. b. Place one five-holed bead flat on a work surface with the node positioned up. Then, two of the four strands into the bead to create an I shaped sister chromatid. Repeat this step with the other two strands and another five-holed bead. c. Once both sister chromatids are constructed, connect them by their five-holed beads creating an X shape. d. Repeat this process using 20 new beads (of a different color) to create the second sister chromatid pair. See the figure below for reference. 2. Assemble a second pair of replicated sister chromatids; this time using 12 beads, instead of 20, per pair (six beads per each complete sister chromatid strand). 3. Repeat this process using 12 new beads (of a different color) to create the second set of sister chromatids. See the figure below for reference.

8 8 4. Configure the chromosomes as they would appear in each of the stages of the cell cycle (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis). Show me the stages! You can either diagram (using the drawing tool in Word, saving the document as Cell Cycle Division: Mitosis Beads Diagram ) or you can take pictures of each stage with a label beside the beads and add the photos to a word document saved as Cell Cycle Division: Mitosis Beads Diagram. Be sure to indicate the number of chromosomes present in each cell for each phase. Upload your document into the Assignment 7 upload area. Post-Lab Questions 1. How many chromosomes did each of your daughter cells contain? 2. Why is it important for each daughter cell to contain information identical to the parent cell? 3. How often do human skin cells divide? Why might that be? Compare this rate to how frequently human neurons divide. What do you notice? 4. Hypothesize what would happen if the sister chromatids did not split equally during anaphase of mitosis.

9 9 Experiment 3: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control Some environmental factors can cause genetic mutations which result in a lack of proper cell cycle control (mitosis). When this happens, the possibility for uncontrolled cell growth occurs. In some instances, uncontrolled growth can lead to tumors, which are often associated with cancer, or other biological diseases. In this experiment, you will review some of the karyotypic differences which can be observed when comparing normal, controlled cell growth and abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth. A karyotype is an image of the complete set of diploid chromosomes in a single cell. Materials *Computer Access *Internet Access *You Must Provide Procedure 1. Begin by constructing a hypothesis to explain what differences you might observe when comparing the karyotypes of human cells which experience normal cell cycle control versus cancerous cells (which experience abnormal, or a lack of, cell cycle control). Record your hypothesis in Post-Lab Question 1. Note: Be sure to include what you expect to observe, and why you think you will observe these features. Think about what you know about cancerous cell growth to help construct this information 2. Go online to find some images of abnormal karyotypes, and normal karyotypes. The best results will come from search terms such as abnormal karyotype, HeLa cells, normal karyotype, abnormal chromosomes, etc. Be sure to use dependable resources which have been peer-reviewed. 3. Identify and describe at least five different abnormalities from your search in the data section below. Then copy and paste the source of each image in the Data section below. Do these abnormalities agree with your original hypothesis? Hint: It may be helpful to count the number of chromosomes, count the number of pairs, compare the sizes of homologous chromosomes, look for any missing or additional genetic markers/flags, etc. Data 1. 2.

10 Post-Lab Questions 1. Record your hypothesis from Step 1 in the Procedure section here. 2. Suppose a person developed a mutation in a somatic cell which diminishes the performance of the body s natural cell cycle control proteins. This mutation resulted in cancer, but was effectively treated with a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it possible for this person s future children to inherit this cancer-causing mutation? Be specific when you explain why or why not.

List, describe, diagram, and identify the stages of meiosis.

List, describe, diagram, and identify the stages of meiosis. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles In this topic we will examine a second type of cell division used by eukaryotic cells: meiosis. In addition, we will see how the 2 types of eukaryotic cell division, mitosis

More information

Cell Growth and Reproduction Module B, Anchor 1

Cell Growth and Reproduction Module B, Anchor 1 Cell Growth and Reproduction Module B, Anchor 1 Key Concepts: - The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. In addition, a larger cell is less efficient in moving nutrients

More information

Chapter 3. Cell Division. Laboratory Activities Activity 3.1: Mock Mitosis Activity 3.2: Mitosis in Onion Cells Activity 3.

Chapter 3. Cell Division. Laboratory Activities Activity 3.1: Mock Mitosis Activity 3.2: Mitosis in Onion Cells Activity 3. Chapter 3 Cell Division Laboratory Activities Activity 3.1: Mock Mitosis Activity 3.2: Mitosis in Onion Cells Activity 3.3: Mock Meiosis Goals Following this exercise students should be able to Recognize

More information

Time For Mitosis. Materials. Procedure. Name

Time For Mitosis. Materials. Procedure. Name Time For Mitosis Name Do all phases of mitosis require the same amount of time for completion? This question can be answered by counting the number of onion root tip cells in the four phases of mitosis

More information

BioSci 2200 General Genetics Problem Set 1 Answer Key Introduction and Mitosis/ Meiosis

BioSci 2200 General Genetics Problem Set 1 Answer Key Introduction and Mitosis/ Meiosis BioSci 2200 General Genetics Problem Set 1 Answer Key Introduction and Mitosis/ Meiosis Introduction - Fields of Genetics To answer the following question, review the three traditional subdivisions of

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know. Define: gene locus gamete male gamete female

More information

Cell Division CELL DIVISION. Mitosis. Designation of Number of Chromosomes. Homologous Chromosomes. Meiosis

Cell Division CELL DIVISION. Mitosis. Designation of Number of Chromosomes. Homologous Chromosomes. Meiosis Cell Division CELL DIVISION Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for any commercial purpose.

More information

Meiosis is a special form of cell division.

Meiosis is a special form of cell division. Page 1 of 6 KEY CONCEPT Meiosis is a special form of cell division. BEFORE, you learned Mitosis produces two genetically identical cells In sexual reproduction, offspring inherit traits from both parents

More information

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Los Angeles Mission College Biology 3 Name: Date: INTRODUCTION BINARY FISSION: Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) reproduce asexually by binary fission. Bacterial

More information

LABORATORY 2 THE CELL CYCLE AND THE STAGES OF MITOSIS LEARNING OBJECTIVES AFTER COMPLETING THIS LABORATORY, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

LABORATORY 2 THE CELL CYCLE AND THE STAGES OF MITOSIS LEARNING OBJECTIVES AFTER COMPLETING THIS LABORATORY, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: LABORATORY 2 THE CELL CYCLE AND THE STAGES OF MITOSIS LEARNING OBJECTIVES AFTER COMPLETING THIS LABORATORY, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Describe the cell cycle. 2. Identify stages of mitosis from prepared

More information

The Cell Cycle: A series of modeling activities

The Cell Cycle: A series of modeling activities The Cell Cycle: A series of modeling activities Cancer Education Project University of Rochester Premise: Students learn best when exposed to a variety of activities Overview 1. Information Gathering:

More information

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Name Period Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Overview: 1. What are the three key roles of cell division? State each role, and give an example. Key Role Example 2. What is meant by the cell cycle? Concept 12.1

More information

Cell Division Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Cell Division Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Cell Division Mitosis and the Cell Cycle A Chromosome and Sister Chromatids Key Points About Chromosome Structure A chromosome consists of DNA that is wrapped around proteins (histones) and condensed Each

More information

1. When new cells are formed through the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes in the new cells

1. When new cells are formed through the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes in the new cells Cell Growth and Reproduction 1. When new cells are formed through the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes in the new cells A. is half of that of the parent cell. B. remains the same as in the

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257 CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257 SECTION 9-1 CELLULAR GROWTH Page 244 ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why is it beneficial for cells to remain small? MAIN IDEA Cells grow until they reach their size limit,

More information

Cell Cycle in Onion Root Tip Cells (IB)

Cell Cycle in Onion Root Tip Cells (IB) Cell Cycle in Onion Root Tip Cells (IB) A quick overview of cell division The genetic information of plants, animals and other eukaryotic organisms resides in several (or many) individual DNA molecules,

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know.

More information

Biology 3A Laboratory MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction

Biology 3A Laboratory MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction Biology 3A Laboratory MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction OBJECTIVE To study the cell cycle and understand how, when and why cells divide. To study and identify the major stages of cell division. To relate the

More information

5. The cells of a multicellular organism, other than gametes and the germ cells from which it develops, are known as

5. The cells of a multicellular organism, other than gametes and the germ cells from which it develops, are known as 1. True or false? The chi square statistical test is used to determine how well the observed genetic data agree with the expectations derived from a hypothesis. True 2. True or false? Chromosomes in prokaryotic

More information

Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells

Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells A quick overview of cell division The genetic information of plants, animals and other eukaryotic organisms resides in several (or many) individual DNA molecules, or chromosomes.

More information

The illustrations below reflect other scientists results in identifying and counting the stages of the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula.

The illustrations below reflect other scientists results in identifying and counting the stages of the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula. Abstract: The purpose of this laboratory experiment was to identify in what stage of mitosis viewed cells were in. The stages of mitosis include prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Although the

More information

Appendix C DNA Replication & Mitosis

Appendix C DNA Replication & Mitosis K.Muma Bio 6 Appendix C DNA Replication & Mitosis Study Objectives: Appendix C: DNA replication and Mitosis 1. Describe the structure of DNA and where it is found. 2. Explain complimentary base pairing:

More information

Lecture 7 Mitosis & Meiosis

Lecture 7 Mitosis & Meiosis Lecture 7 Mitosis & Meiosis Cell Division Essential for body growth and tissue repair Interphase G 1 phase Primary cell growth phase S phase DNA replication G 2 phase Microtubule synthesis Mitosis Nuclear

More information

1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes?

1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes? Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes? 2. Define: gamete zygote meiosis homologous chromosomes diploid haploid

More information

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Page 1 of 5 Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Genetics Exercise: Understanding how meiosis affects genetic inheritance and DNA patterns

More information

Cellular Reproduction

Cellular Reproduction 9 Cellular Reproduction section 1 Cellular Growth Before You Read Think about the life cycle of a human. On the lines below, write some of the stages that occur in the life cycle of a human. In this section,

More information

Laboratory Observing the Cell Cycle of Onion Root Tip Cells

Laboratory Observing the Cell Cycle of Onion Root Tip Cells Laboratory Observing the Cell Cycle of Onion Root Tip Cells Background: Because of their rapid growth, the cells of the root tips of plants undergo rapid cell division. Ornamental onion root tips cells

More information

The cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis

The cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis The cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis Learning objective This learning material is about the life cycle of a cell and the series of stages by which genetic materials are duplicated and partitioned to produce

More information

Lecture 2: Mitosis and meiosis

Lecture 2: Mitosis and meiosis Lecture 2: Mitosis and meiosis 1. Chromosomes 2. Diploid life cycle 3. Cell cycle 4. Mitosis 5. Meiosis 6. Parallel behavior of genes and chromosomes Basic morphology of chromosomes telomere short arm

More information

CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE CHROMOSOME NUMBERS

CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE CHROMOSOME NUMBERS CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE 1. During nuclear division, the DNA (as chromatin) in a Eukaryotic cell's nucleus is coiled into very tight compact structures called chromosomes. These are rod-shaped structures made

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction We know all about asexual reproduction 1. Only one parent required. 2. Offspring are identical to parents. 3. The cells that produce the offspring are not usually

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual reproduction Mitosis steps, diagrams, purpose o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Meiosis steps, diagrams, purpose

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Rooting for Mitosis Overview Students will fix, stain, and make slides of onion root tips. These slides will be examined for the presence

More information

Lab 3: Testing Hypotheses about Mitosis

Lab 3: Testing Hypotheses about Mitosis Lab 3: Testing Hypotheses about Mitosis Why do cells divide? Lab today focuses on cellular division, also known as cellular reproduction. To become more familiar with why cells divide, the types of cell

More information

From DNA to Protein

From DNA to Protein Nucleus Control center of the cell contains the genetic library encoded in the sequences of nucleotides in molecules of DNA code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins determines which specific proteins

More information

www.njctl.org PSI Biology Mitosis & Meiosis

www.njctl.org PSI Biology Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis Classwork 1. Identify two differences between meiosis and mitosis. 2. Provide an example of a type of cell in the human body that would undergo mitosis. 3. Does cell division

More information

Lecture 11 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Lecture 11 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Lecture 11 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis In this lecture Cell division Chromosomes The cell cycle Mitosis PPMAT Apoptosis What is cell division? Cells divide in order to reproduce themselves The cell cycle

More information

1. Identify each phase of mitosis on the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula. 3. Explain differences in mitosis between plant and animal cells.

1. Identify each phase of mitosis on the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula. 3. Explain differences in mitosis between plant and animal cells. Mitosis Objectives Having completed the lab on mitosis, you should be able to: 1. Identify each phase of mitosis on the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula. 2. Describe the events during each phase

More information

4.2 Meiosis. Meiosis is a reduction division. Assessment statements. The process of meiosis

4.2 Meiosis. Meiosis is a reduction division. Assessment statements. The process of meiosis 4.2 Meiosis Assessment statements State that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei. Define homologous chromosomes. Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing

More information

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Name Period Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Overview: 1. What are the three key roles of cell division? State each role, and give an example. Key Role Reproduction Growth and development Tissue removal Example

More information

LAB 09 Cell Division

LAB 09 Cell Division LAB 09 Cell Division Introduction: One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate and pass on genetic information to the next generation. Cell division in individual bacteria and

More information

The Somatic Cell Cycle

The Somatic Cell Cycle The Somatic Cell Cycle Maternal chromosome Diploid Zygote Diploid Zygote Paternal chromosome MITOSIS MITOSIS Maternal chromosome Diploid organism Diploid organism Paternal chromosome Int terpha ase The

More information

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization 1

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization 1 Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization 1 I. Introduction When you fall and scrape the skin off your hands or knees, how does your body make new skin cells to replace the skin cells that were scraped off? How

More information

CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION Cell division is an inherent property of living organisms. It is a process in which cells reproduce their own kind. The growth, differentiation, reproduction and

More information

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY Adapted from Foundations of Biology I; Lab 6 Introduction to Microscopy Dr. John Robertson, Westminster College Biology Department,

More information

Guided Notes: Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Guided Notes: Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction Guided Notes: Cellular Reproduction When do cells divide? Cells grow and function normally until they become too. Cell size is because increases faster than This means that there is not enough area on

More information

If and when cancer cells stop dividing, they do so at random points, not at the normal checkpoints in the cell cycle.

If and when cancer cells stop dividing, they do so at random points, not at the normal checkpoints in the cell cycle. Cancer cells have escaped from cell cycle controls Cancer cells divide excessively and invade other tissues because they are free of the body s control mechanisms. Cancer cells do not stop dividing when

More information

CELL DIVISION. STAGES OF MITOTIC DIVISION (Diag. C1)

CELL DIVISION. STAGES OF MITOTIC DIVISION (Diag. C1) 1 CELL DIVISION Cell division is the process by which cells replicate in order to replace cell loss, repair tissue damage and reproduce the organism. Two types of cell division are encountered in the Eukaryotic

More information

Cell Division and Mitosis DNA. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. 2. Meiosis occurs in the reproductive organs, producing four haploid sex cells.

Cell Division and Mitosis DNA. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. 2. Meiosis occurs in the reproductive organs, producing four haploid sex cells. ell Division and Mitosis 1. he life cycle of a cell has two parts growth and development, and cell division. 2. In mitosis, the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei. Mitosis occurs in four continuous

More information

Cell Division Simulation: Bacteria Activity One

Cell Division Simulation: Bacteria Activity One Cell Division Simulation: Bacteria Activity One Introduction All living things are made of cells. Some living things, like plants and animals, are made of millions of cells. But some living things are

More information

Workshop: Cellular Reproduction via Mitosis & Meiosis

Workshop: Cellular Reproduction via Mitosis & Meiosis Workshop: Cellular Reproduction via Mitosis & Meiosis Introduction In this workshop you will examine how cells divide, including how they partition their genetic material (DNA) between the two resulting

More information

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Ch. 8 Cell Division Cells divide to produce new cells must pass genetic information to new cells - What process of DNA allows this? Two types

More information

Classify chromosomes in a karyotype according to size and centromere position. Identify metacentric, submetacentric and acrocentric chromosomes

Classify chromosomes in a karyotype according to size and centromere position. Identify metacentric, submetacentric and acrocentric chromosomes Mitosis, Meiosis and the Cell Cycle Prof. Alfred Cuschieri University of Malta Department of Anatomy Objectives By the end of the session the student shoud be able to: Define the meaning of chromosomes

More information

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Questions 1. Scientific method: What does each of these entail? Investigation and Experimentation Problem Hypothesis Methods Results/Data Discussion/Conclusion

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 5 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 5 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 5 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. If a cell cannot move enough material

More information

CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA

CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes and their structure, inheritance, and abnormalities. Chromosome abnormalities occur in approximately:

More information

Addition by Division TEACHER NOTES SCIENCE NSPIRED

Addition by Division TEACHER NOTES SCIENCE NSPIRED Science Objectives Students will identify the changes that occur in cells during each phase of the cell cycle. Students will correlate these changes to the duration of time cells spend in each phase. While

More information

Test Two Study Guide

Test Two Study Guide Test Two Study Guide 1. Describe what is happening inside a cell during the following phases (pictures may help but try to use words): Interphase: : Consists of G1 / S / G2. Growing stage, cell doubles

More information

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions. Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions!

AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions. Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions! AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions! Chapter 7 Variation 7.1 Random Sampling Sampling a population to eliminate bias e.g. grid square

More information

Practice Problems 4. (a) 19. (b) 36. (c) 17

Practice Problems 4. (a) 19. (b) 36. (c) 17 Chapter 10 Practice Problems Practice Problems 4 1. The diploid chromosome number in a variety of chrysanthemum is 18. What would you call varieties with the following chromosome numbers? (a) 19 (b) 36

More information

Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome.

Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome. Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome. Define the terms karyotype, autosomal and sex chromosomes. Explain how many of

More information

Sexual Reproduction. and Meiosis. Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction. and Meiosis. Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Describe the stages of meiosis and how sex cells are produced. Explain why meiosis is needed for sexual reproduction. Name the cells that are involved in fertilization.

More information

Teacher s Guide. Mitosis. Grades 5-9 MTTV

Teacher s Guide. Mitosis. Grades 5-9 MTTV Teacher s Guide Mitosis Grades 5-9 MTTV CREDITS Program Production Sunburst Visual Media Teacher s Guide Terry Gates Print Material Design Cecile Foshee 2004 Sunburst Visual Media, a division of Global

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Meiosis Quiz 1. (1 point) A kidney cell is an example of which type of cell? a. sex cell b. germ cell c. somatic cell d. haploid cell 2. (1 point) How many chromosomes are in a human

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 12 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Concept Outline 12.1 Meiosis produces haploid cells from diploid cells. Discovery of Reduction Division. Sexual reproduction does not increase chromosome number because

More information

1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Cells CHAPTER. 1.2.1 Prokaryotic Cells. 1.2.2 Eukaryotic Cells

1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Cells CHAPTER. 1.2.1 Prokaryotic Cells. 1.2.2 Eukaryotic Cells C HAPTER 1CELLS AND CELL DIVISION CHAPTER 1.1 Introduction In genetics, we view cells as vessels for the genetic material. Our main interest is in the chromosomes and their environment. This being said,

More information

How Well Do You Know Your Cells?

How Well Do You Know Your Cells? How Well Do You Know Your Cells? Complete each sentence below with words from the box. One word will not be used. cells cell membrane cell walls chloroplasts cytoplasm Hooke Leeuwenhoek mitochondria nucleus

More information

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes.

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Genetic Mutations Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Agenda Warm UP: What is a mutation? Body cell? Gamete? Notes on Mutations Karyotype Web Activity

More information

Chromosome Mapping Assignment INSTRUCTIONS

Chromosome Mapping Assignment INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS PROCEDURE A: 1) Examine the diagram of perch chromosomes supplied. They have been removed from the nucleus of the white blood cell after replication. 2) Cut out each chromosome map of these

More information

Human Chromosomes lab 5

Human Chromosomes lab 5 Human Chromosomes lab 5 Objectives Upon completion of this activity, you should be able to: describe the structure of human chromosomes with reference to size, centromere position, and presence or absence

More information

Sample Questions for Exam 3

Sample Questions for Exam 3 Sample Questions for Exam 3 1. All of the following occur during prometaphase of mitosis in animal cells except a. the centrioles move toward opposite poles. b. the nucleolus can no longer be seen. c.

More information

The chromosomes are structures in living cells that contain

The chromosomes are structures in living cells that contain Brooker Widmaier Graham Stiling: III. Nucleic Acid Structure and DNA Replication 15. Eukaryotic Chromosomes, Mitosis, 47 EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES, MITOSIS, AND MEIOSIS C HAPTER O UTLINE 15.1 Molecular Structure

More information

Look for these related items from Learning Resources :

Look for these related items from Learning Resources : Look for these related items from Learning Resources : LER 1901 Cross Section Plant Cell LER 1902 Cross Section Heart Model LER 1903 Cross Section Brain Model LER 2437 Cross Section Earth Model For a dealer

More information

How Cancer Begins???????? Chithra Manikandan Nov 2009

How Cancer Begins???????? Chithra Manikandan Nov 2009 Cancer Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed world: 1 in 4 deaths are due to cancer 1 in 17 deaths are due to lung cancer Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men Breast cancer

More information

Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. 10 pts.

Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. 10 pts. THE CELL model: Activity 4.1 Science / Biology Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. - Your models should clearly demonstrate the following

More information

High School Science Lesson Plan: Biology

High School Science Lesson Plan: Biology High School Science Lesson Plan: Biology Introduction Each lesson in the Adolescent Literacy Toolkit is designed to support students through the reading/learning process by providing instruction before,

More information

Where is Mitosis Most Common in the Onion Root?

Where is Mitosis Most Common in the Onion Root? Where is Mitosis Most Common in the Onion Root? Faith Loyd Biology Miss Carpenter February 20, 2013 Problem, Hypothesis, and Prediction The problem in this lab is: To analyze data to see whether mitosis

More information

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction 10 Name Due Date Show Me NOTE: This worksheet is based on material from pages 367-372 in Science Probe. 1. Sexual reproduction requires parents,

More information

14.3 Studying the Human Genome

14.3 Studying the Human Genome 14.3 Studying the Human Genome Lesson Objectives Summarize the methods of DNA analysis. State the goals of the Human Genome Project and explain what we have learned so far. Lesson Summary Manipulating

More information

Materials and Methods. Ribonuclease.--Removal of ribonucleic acid from meristematic onion cells did not show any qualitative differences

Materials and Methods. Ribonuclease.--Removal of ribonucleic acid from meristematic onion cells did not show any qualitative differences B~U~ Noz~s 129 Alterations in Nuclear Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism Induced by l~inetin.* BY RUTH GUNMAN. From the Department of Genetics, University of California, Be, kezey.~ Kinetin, a substance recently

More information

Genetic material of all living organisms. Biology - 100

Genetic material of all living organisms. Biology - 100 Genetic material of all living organisms. Biology - 100 This antibiotic is made from a fungus that was first discovered growing on an orange and it became the first antibiotic to treat infection. Biology

More information

the plant & animal cell

the plant & animal cell 6.1 Basic unit of life Biology Biology Structure & functions of 06 the plant & animal cell In 1665, Robert Hooke observed a section of a cork using a microscope prepared by him. He discovered a structure

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function CHAPTER 3 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Vocabulary Practice cell theory vacuole concentration gradient cytoplasm lysosome osmosis organelle centriole isotonic prokaryotic cell cell wall hypertonic eukaryotic

More information

Genetic modification for cell pedigree labels to aid disease treatment

Genetic modification for cell pedigree labels to aid disease treatment Genetic modification for cell pedigree labels to aid disease treatment Ronald L. Rivest rivest@mit.edu March 10, 2014 Abstract We suggest modifying the human genome in order to aid in the treatment of

More information

Use of the Microscope and Cytology

Use of the Microscope and Cytology Use of the Microscope and Cytology Introduction: A true study of anatomy not only considers the large, visible structures of an organism, but also the small structures that provide the organism its form

More information

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes.

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes. 1. Why is the white-eye phenotype always observed in males carrying the white-eye allele? a. Because the trait is dominant b. Because the trait is recessive c. Because the allele is located on the X chromosome

More information

Answer: 2. Uracil. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds. Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA.

Answer: 2. Uracil. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds. Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA. Answer: 2. Uracil Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA. Thymine is found only in DNA; Uracil takes its (Thymine) place in RNA molecules. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds The complementary

More information

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix DNA Replication DNA Discovery of the DNA double helix A. 1950 s B. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA. C. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklin s X-ray. What is DNA? Question:

More information

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino)

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino) Genetics 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents. Parents and their children tend to have similar appearance because children inherit genes from their parents and these genes influence

More information

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Ch. 3

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Ch. 3 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Ch. 3 THE CHROMOSOME THEORY OF INHERITANCE AND SEX CHROMOSOMES! The chromosome theory of inheritance describes how the transmission of chromosomes account for the Mendelian

More information

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Concept 1 - Thinking Practice 1. If the following molecules were to undergo a dehydration synthesis reaction, what molecules would result? Circle the parts of each amino acid that will interact and draw

More information

A and B are not absolutely linked. They could be far enough apart on the chromosome that they assort independently.

A and B are not absolutely linked. They could be far enough apart on the chromosome that they assort independently. Name Section 7.014 Problem Set 5 Please print out this problem set and record your answers on the printed copy. Answers to this problem set are to be turned in to the box outside 68-120 by 5:00pm on Friday

More information

8 kcal/mole of ATP 2 ATP 16 kcal 16 kcal/2 moles of ATP 686 kcal/mole of glucose 2.3%

8 kcal/mole of ATP 2 ATP 16 kcal 16 kcal/2 moles of ATP 686 kcal/mole of glucose 2.3% 4. The cell s supply of ADP, P i, and NAD + is finite (limited). What happens to cellular respiration when all of the cell s NAD + has been converted to NADH? If NAD is unavailable, the cell is unable

More information

7 TH GRADE FINAL EXAM PRACTICE TEST. Part I: Cells. 1. The cell grows to its mature size during. a. mitosis b. prophase c. telophase d.

7 TH GRADE FINAL EXAM PRACTICE TEST. Part I: Cells. 1. The cell grows to its mature size during. a. mitosis b. prophase c. telophase d. 7 TH GRADE FINAL EXAM PRACTICE TEST Part I: Cells 1. The cell grows to its mature size during a. mitosis b. prophase c. telophase d. interphase 2. The final stage of the cell cycle is called a. interphase

More information

02-SciProbe9-Chap02 2/8/07 12:12 PM Page 32 32 NEL

02-SciProbe9-Chap02 2/8/07 12:12 PM Page 32 32 NEL 32 UNIT A REPRODUCTION Chapter 2 Cell Growth and Reproduction Chapter 3 Sexual Reproduction Chapter 4 Human Reproduction Unit Preview Your body is made of many trillions of cells that came from a single

More information

CTY Genetics Syllabus

CTY Genetics Syllabus CTY Genetics Syllabus Week 1: Review and Mendelian Genetics What (DUE DATE) 1 Introduction and Review Morning Classroom Policies/ Ice Breaker Game/Introductions Syllabus Distribute Syllabus, Discuss Course

More information

AP Biology 2011 Scoring Guidelines Form B

AP Biology 2011 Scoring Guidelines Form B AP Biology 2011 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded

More information

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes a. Cells tissues organs body systems Division of labour occurs in multicellular organisms (rather than each cell carrying out every function) Most cells become

More information